Revival of interest to three-dimensional echocardiography during recent years was invoked by introduction of essentially novel ultrasound technology of "live" three-dimensional imaging. We introduce here the first experience of the use of three-dimensional echocardiography in Russia comprising examination of 74 patients with various pathology of the heart. Positions and sections are described allowing best visualization of pathology of cardiac valves and other intracardiac structures. Our experience shows that at present three-dimensional echocardiography should be considered to be an important supplement to standard echocardiography. However in some cases it can be the only non-invasive technique able to provide complete information on the size of ventricular and atrial septal defects, valvular and other cardiac pathology.
The purpose of our study was to assess the immediate and late results of treatment with Cypher drug-eluting stents (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, USA) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This was a prospective study that included 738 patients who had been implanted Cypher stents in May 2002 to March 2006. The patients' mean age was 56 +/- 9 years; there were 87% of males. The patients were randomly included into the study and they underwent coronary stenting in the routine laboratory setting. A control group comprised 162 patients who had undergone Velocity or Sonic nondrug-eluting stents of the same firm, which had the similar structure. The groups did not differ in clinical characteristics. 827 stenoses in the eluting stent group and 225 stenoses in the control group were subject to revascularization. The immediate cure rate was 95 and 94%, respectively. The total number of events (myocardial infarction, emergency coronary bypass surgery, subacute occlusion of a stented segment) was 2.3% in the eluting stent group and 2.4% in the control group. A repeated examination 1 year after surgery was made in 482 and 119 patients in the drug-eluting and nondrug-eluting groups, respectively. During the follow-up, one patient died of a extracardiac cause and 3 (0.6%) patients underwent coronary bypass surgery in the nondrug-eluting stent group; there were no deaths and 2 (1.6%) patients had coronary bypass surgery in the control group. In the eluting stent group, there were fewer cases of repeated endovascular procedures of target stenosis revascularization than in the control group (3.7% versus 11.7%; p
[The risk assessment for a fatal outcome in patients with stable angina based on the data from a long-term prospective observation (a comparison of the 5-year survival prognosis with the data at the 6th to 12th years of the observation)].
A rule has been developed to predict coronary death in 377 patients with coronary heart disease and stable angina due to coronary stenotic atherosclerosis. Gravimetric values of various clinical signs, resting ECG changes, and bicycle ergometric testing have been obtained by a computer. A decisive rule has been also derived. According to the values of prognostic indices I1 and I2, groups of low, moderate, and high risks for fatal outcomes for 5 years have been identified and the patient's survival during a subsequent follow-up of 6 to 12 years has been assessed. The developed scheme of prognosis permits its use in practice.
Coronary angiography is the necessary investigation in the diagnostic complex of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The use of trans-radial access makes it possible to do the angiography without hospitalization. The algorithm of coronary angiography in day-time clinic was proposed. Non-hospital angiography in 15 patients was successful. It is the first time this method has been used in this country.
To evaluate long-term results of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) vs. rate-control strategy in patients with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) METHODS: We assessed 5-years results in 66 patients (53.3+/-12.3 years old, 8 women) with long-lasting persistent AF who underwent RFA (ablation group), as well as in age-gender-AF duration-matched patients who were treated with rate-control strategy (rate-control group).The ablation strategy consisted of wide-area circumferential lines around pulmonary veins, roof lines and extensive RFA of the left atrial substrate modification using a three-dimensional mapping system. Incidence of sinus rhythm (SR) maintenance, death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), worsening of heart failure (NYHA) were evaluated after 5 years of follow-up.
After 5 years of follow up SR was present in 38 (56%) of 42 who were under follow up patients of ablation group and all patients had AF in rate-control group (95% CI 0.02247-0.3598; p=0.0001). Seventeen (27%) patients of ablation group continued to take atniarrhythmic drugs. 29 (44%) patients of ablation group vs. 48 (73%) patients of rate-control group received warfarin (95% CI 0.442-1.1; p=0.046) at five years of follow up. After five years of follow up the incidence of MI, stroke, worsening of heart failure functional class, and death in the ablation/rate-control groups were 0%/7.5% (95% CI 0.05247-0.30898; p=0,006), 0%/9% (95% CI 0.08903-0.32561; p=0.001), 6%/25% (95% CI 0.147-0.894; p=0.006), and 0.02%/0%, respectively.
In patients with long-lasting persistent AF ablation strategy results in stable SR in the majority of patients, and decreased incidence of cardiovascular events compared with rate-control strategy during up to 5 years of follow-up.