In this study, evaluation of genome instability in individuals exposed to chemical compounds included detection of the genetic polymorphism of some xenobiotic metabolic enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1E1, PON1, GSTM1, GSTT1), as well as measurement of oxidative state chemiluminescent variables and the level of cytogenetic damage. According to the study, the level of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes shows a strong correlation with PON54 left allele and GSTM1 null genotype, and can be described by the polynomial function of blood plasma luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The frequencies of micronuclei in buccal epithelium displayed a weak association with GSTT1 null genotype.
A novel methodological design comprising multilevel assessments of exposures of examinees to controlled ambient air pollution according to the data of route stations was developed to examine the population of large towns. The design was tested in 4 surveys of Moscow residents (apparently healthy and outpatients with a number of chronic diseases). The findings indicate the fundamental possibility of altering the traditional differential design of biomedical surveys of the population, by introducing more evidence-based regression analyses and dividing the contributions of individual chemicals to the observed changes in health indices.
The assessment of the human risk of mutagens is a constituent of the general assessment of the risk of environment-pollutant chemicals to the population's health. An algorithm of assessing the risk of mutagens is proposed. Stage 1 (hazard identification) is to provide an expert analytical characterization of the mutagenic potential of the chemicals polluting the study object. Stage 2 (hazard characterization) is to analyze the quantitative dependences of the effect of mutagens in gametes and somatic cells of man and mammals. Stage 3 (effect evaluation) is to characterize the sources of pollution and the doses of mutagens affecting the population. Stage 4 (risk characterization) is to calculate the risk of mutagens to the population and individuals.
The paper presents the results of an integrated medical genetic survey carried out in the town of Chapayevsk. The survey included an estimation of the incidence of congenital malformations (CMF), congenital morphogenetic options (CMGO), evaluation of the frequency of chromosomal mutations of various types and micronuclei in human somatic cells. The incidence of CMF among newborn infants corresponds to that in Russia, but such forms of CMF as congenital hydrocephalus and agenesia and disgenesis of the kidney were more common in the town. The study ascertained that the average number of CMGO per child was on the increase. Cytogenetic findings unambiguously demonstrate that there was a spatial gradient within the town (from the plant to remote districts), higher rates of chromosomal aberrations. Further studies of the effects of dioxins on genetic health are required to assess the actual genetic risk due to its human contact.
The paper presents the results of investigating the phenotypic polymorphism of a number of biochemical and immunological parameters (the values of oxidative stress, the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase in red blood cells, the serum levels of catecholamines, tumor-necrosis factor-?, and IgG antibody subclasses) in the authors' hygienic studies of genotypic and nongenotypic population samples.
Using data on the distribution of frequent surnames, the Crow index and its components, and nine polymorphic DNA loci, it was shown that the Tatar population of the Republic of Tatarstan is divided into subethnic groups (Mishars, Teptyars, and Kazan Tatars). No subdivision within each of these groups was found.