The problem of a comprehensive evaluation of the influence of major vital factors on the health of schoolchildren and students has been recently pressing. The paper contains the material obtained in the development of a comprehensive approach to the hygienic assessment of quality of life (QL) in pupils and young students. The findings enable one to state the fundamentals of the concept of a comprehensive approach to assessing QL in pupils, to introduce a new principle in the comparison of objective parameters with subjective ones, to prove the dynamics and variability of QL characteristics. The obtained material substantiates the need for theoretical and practical developments of this problem.
The paper analyzes of the currently available guidelines for assessing damages (in kind and value terms) caused by environmental factors to the population's health. The contributions of various diseases, the quality of the environment, bad habits, and other internal and external factors to the mortality structure in Russia are compared. The authors show it important to study the comparative role of the quality of life and its style, environmental pollution, the population's subjective perception of risks in the formation of health damages.
The epidemiological studies of the severity and spread of caries of deciduous and permanent teeth in Moscow schoolchildren (n = > 20,000) aged 7-17 years in relation to the content of fluoride in the drinking water, to the use of fluorine-containing tablets and varnishes have provided evidence for the high efficiency of drinking water fluorination for the primary prevention of caries as compared with other preventive alternatives. Based on sanitary studies, two main lines are now under way in solving the problem connected with low dietary fluoride intake: the introduction of routine water-purifying fluorine generators (based on a new technology of fluorination of limited water volumes for drinking and cooking) and the setting-up of plants manufacturing bottled drinking waters containing the optimum or higher fluorine levels for provision of different population groups, primarily children and pregnant women in particular.
In the paper the results of a comparative evaluation of the Russian and the standard, recommended by US EPA, factors of population exposure in seven areas of different federal districts of Russia are presented. Concerning the adult population differences reach 3.5 times, for children (1-6 years) - 4.2 times. An example of the effect of regional differences and standard factors on levels of exposure and risk is considered. Promising areas for further research on regional factors to improve the accuracy and reliability of the forecast assessments of the risks to public health have been identified.
The paper presents the results of testing 4 main models of copy-pair examinations in some cities and towns of the country, which have been recommended for singling out the influence of a water factor on human health in epidemiological surveys. A locality with varying water supply (drinking water quality) in its different parts is shown to be methodologically the best model.
The paper presents the results of some guidance studies assessing the risk, recently conducted at the A. N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Health, such as validation of toxicological and hygienic criteria for risk assessment upon short- and long-term human exposures to deleterious substances; development and introduction of methods for assessing health risk and damage, by applying computer technologies; elaboration of guidelines for establishing the cause-and-effect relationship of changes in health indices to those in the environment; characterization of damage caused by ambient air pollution in Russian cities and towns; possibilities of using the guidance for assessing the risk to improve sociohygienic monitoring. It also gives the results of testing scientific developments in the assessment of a multienvironmental risk in the areas exposed to emission from aluminum works (Khakasia) and chemical and petrochemical enterprises (Samara Region) and in the determination of contribution of emission from the Moscow fuel-and-energy complex to risks and damages to human health, caused by ambient air pollution. The urgent issues of further development of modern trends in risk guidance studies are determined.