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Anthropometric predictors of serum fasting insulin in 9- and 15-year-old children and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76175
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 May;16(4):263-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2006
Author
Inga Thorsdottir
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Gestur I Palsson
Erlingur Johannsson
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital and Department of Food Science, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 May;16(4):263-71
Date
May-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIM: As the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases, the risk of insulin resistance rises. The aim was to study the association between anthropometric measurements and fasting insulin concentration in a population-based sample of 9- and 15-year-old children and adolescents. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects were randomly selected 9- and 15-year-old pupils (n=262) in a cross-sectional, population-based study. Weight and height, waist, hip and mid-arm-circumference and subcutaneous skinfolds were measured using standard procedures. Fasting insulin was measured. In general the mean anthropometric measurements increased across insulin quartiles. Higher fasting insulin concentration was seen in overweight children and adolescents than in those of normal weight (8.3+/-4.4 vs. 4.9+/-3.6mmol/L and 11.0+/-4.4 vs. 9.0+/-4.2mmol/L in 9- and 15 year-olds, respectively). The odds ratio for having insulin in the highest quartile (age and gender-specific) was, when compared with the lowest quartile, 7.2 (95% CI 3.0-17.2) for body mass index and 6.9 (2.8-16.7) for waist circumference. Other measurements of body fatness were less predictive. About 14-20% of children defined as being of normal weight had high fasting insulin values, i.e., were in the highest quartile of fasting insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Body fatness is positively related to fasting insulin concentration in 9- and 15-year-old children. A large number of normal-weight individuals with high fasting insulin concentration was observed, and these children could be at increased risk of weight gain, compared with normal-weight individuals with normal fasting insulin concentration.
PubMed ID
16679218 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292512
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2017 Sep; 49(9):647-654
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Anna Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Hallgrimur Gudjonsson
Hjordis Hardardottir
Karen Drofn Jonsdottir
Einar Stefan Bjornsson
Author Affiliation
a Hospital Pharmacy, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland , Reykjavik , Iceland.
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2017 Sep; 49(9):647-654
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Clarithromycin - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Gastroscopy
Helicobacter Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Helicobacter pylori - drug effects
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Levofloxacin - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Male
Metronidazole - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
Increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics calls for constant re-evaluation of multidrug regimens that have been used to eradicate the infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori in an Icelandic cohort.
Patients referred for gastroscopy were recruited prospectively. Those found to have a positive rapid urease test were included in the study. Susceptibility testing was conducted by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline. Results were obtained after three days of incubation in microaerophilic conditions at 37?°C, except for the metronidazole were the first 24?hours were anaerobic.
Of the 613 patients who underwent gastroscopy, 138 (23%) had a positive rapid urease test. H. pylori was successfully cultured from 105 (76%) of the urease test positive patients and the isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Five patients had prior H. pylori eradication. Antibiotic resistance for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline was 0%, 9%, 4%, 1% and 0%, respectively. If those who had previously undergone eradication treatment were excluded, the resistance was 0%, 6%, 3%, 1% and 0%, respectively. Clarithromycin resistance was higher amongst women than men, 13% vs. 5%, however, not significantly. Clarithromycin resistance was 60% amongst those who had previously received eradication treatment compared to 6% of those who had not (p?
PubMed ID
28440099 View in PubMed
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Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126210
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Tinna Eysteinsdottir
Inga Thorsdottir
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland and Landspitali National-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. tinnaey@landspitali.is
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:12
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Animals
Cod Liver Oil
Coffee
Dairy Products
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Diet Records
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Geriatric Assessment
Humans
Iceland
Interviews as Topic
Male
Meat
Nutrition Assessment
Questionnaires - standards
Sex Factors
Tea
Vegetables
Abstract
Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes.
128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend.
For men a correlation = 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test.
A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and various health-related endpoints gathered in the AGES-Reykjavik Study.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22413931 View in PubMed
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Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118961
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:94
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Oddny K Kristbjornsdottir
Thorhallur I Halldorsson
Inga Thorsdottir
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, Eiriksgata 29, Reykjavik 101, Iceland.
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:94
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height
Body Weight
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Potassium, Dietary - urine
Sodium, Dietary - urine
Abstract
Limited data is available on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h) excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality.
The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76). Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake.
Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD), 1.64 (0.54) g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h) and 1.22 (0.43) g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06) per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1-4) while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29).
Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23153276 View in PubMed
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Associations between infant feeding practice prior to six months and body mass index at six years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258868
Source
Nutrients. 2014 Apr;6(4):1608-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Cindy Mari Imai
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Birna Thorisdottir
Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson
Inga Thorsdottir
Source
Nutrients. 2014 Apr;6(4):1608-17
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Breast Feeding
Child
Diet Records
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Iceland
Infant
Infant Formula
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Nutrition Assessment
Obesity - prevention & control
Overweight - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
Weight Gain
Abstract
Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0-12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24747694 View in PubMed
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Birth size and brain function 75 years later.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260782
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):761-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Majon Muller
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Olafur Kjartansson
Palmi V Jonsson
Melissa Garcia
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Inga Thorsdottir
Tamara B Harris
Mark van Buchem
Vilmundur Gudnason
Lenore J Launer
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):761-70
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Birth Weight - physiology
Brain - physiology
Cognition - physiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Abstract
There are several lines of evidence pointing to fetal and other early origins of diseases of the aging brain, but there are no data directly addressing the hypotheses in an older population. We investigated the association of fetal size to late-age measures of brain structure and function in a large cohort of older men and women and explored the modifying effect of education on these associations.
Within the AGES (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility)-Reykjavik population-based cohort (born between 1907 and 1935), archived birth records were abstracted for 1254 men and women who ~75 years later underwent an examination that included brain MRI and extensive cognitive assessment.
Adjustment for intracranial volume, demographic and medical history characteristics, and lower Ponderal index at birth (per kg/m(3)), an indicator of third-trimester fetal wasting, was significantly associated with smaller volumes of total brain and white matter; ßs (95% confidence intervals) were -1.0 (-1.9 to -0.0) and -0.5 (-1.0 to -0.0) mL. Furthermore, lower Ponderal index was associated with slower processing speed and reduced executive functioning but only in those with low education (ß [95% confidence interval]: -0.136 [-0.235 to -0.036] and -0.077 [-0.153 to -0.001]).
This first study of its kind provides clinical measures suggesting that smaller birth size, as an indicator of a suboptimal intrauterine environment, is associated with late-life alterations in brain tissue volume and function. In addition, it shows that the effects of a suboptimal intrauterine environment on late-life cognitive function were present only in those with lower educational levels.
PubMed ID
25180277 View in PubMed
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Childhood growth and adult hypertension in a population of high birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134458
Source
Hypertension. 2011 Jul;58(1):8-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir
Vilmundur Gudnason
Thor Aspelund
Inga Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland and Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. tih@hi.is
Source
Hypertension. 2011 Jul;58(1):8-15
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Birth weight
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body mass index
Child
Child Development - physiology
Child, Preschool
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Overweight - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Prognosis
Risk factors
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Low birth weight has consistently been associated with increased adult blood pressure. The relative importance of childhood growth is, however, less well established. This study examined sex-specific associations between childhood growth and adult blood pressure in 2120 subjects born from 1921 to 1935 in Reykjavik who were recruited into a longitudinal study in 1967-1991. Size at birth and growth at regular intervals between 8 and 13 years were collected from national archives. Hypertensive males did not differ from normotensive males at birth but were increasingly taller and of higher body mass index between 8 and 13 years. No differences in adult height were observed between hypertensive and normotensive males. For boys, growth-velocity (change in growth per year) for body mass index and height between 8 to 13 years was positively associated (P
PubMed ID
21576624 View in PubMed
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Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263650
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 Jun 16;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-16-2015
Author
Tinna Eysteinsdottir
Thorhallur I Halldorsson
Inga Thorsdottir
Gunnar Sigurdsson
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Tamara Harris
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 Jun 16;:1-9
Date
Jun-16-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0·1 higher, compared with those with an intake of
PubMed ID
26079168 View in PubMed
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Depression and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older adults living at northern latitudes - AGES-Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268648
Source
J Nutr Sci. 2015;4:e37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cindy M Imai
Thorhallur I Halldorsson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Mary F Cotch
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Inga Thorsdottir
Lenore J Launer
Tamara Harris
Vilmundur Gudnason
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Source
J Nutr Sci. 2015;4:e37
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Low vitamin D status may be associated with depression. Few studies have examined vitamin D and depression in older adults living at northern latitudes. The present study cross-sectionally investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and depression among 5006 community-dwelling older persons (66-96 years) living in Iceland (latitudes 64-66°N). Depressive symptoms were measured by the fifteen-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Current major depressive disorder was assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Serum 25(OH)D was analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay and categorised into three groups: deficient (
PubMed ID
26688723 View in PubMed
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[Diet and nutrient intake of pregnant women in the capital area in Iceland].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284954
Source
Laeknabladid. 2016 Sep;102(9):378-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Ellen Alma Tryggvadottir
Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir
Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson
Helga Medek
Reynir Tomas Geirsson
Source
Laeknabladid. 2016 Sep;102(9):378-84
Date
Sep-2016
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Choice Behavior
Diet - adverse effects
Feeding Behavior
Female
Health status
Healthy Diet
Humans
Iceland
Maternal health
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Pregnancy
Recommended dietary allowances
Urban health
Young Adult
Abstract
Nutrition in pregnancy may affect growth, development and health of the child in the short and long term. We aimed to assess diet and nutrient intake among pregnant women in the capital area and evaluate differences in dietary intake between women who were overweight/obese and normal weight before pregnancy.
Pregnant women aged 18-40 years (n=183) living in the capital area kept four day weighed food records to assess diet and nutrient intake in the 19th-24th week of pregnancy (n=98 with body mass index (BMI)
PubMed ID
27646179 View in PubMed
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34 records – page 1 of 4.