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Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123566
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Stegmayr
Kurt Boman
Göran Hallmans
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@odont.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - trends
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - adverse effects
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Diet, Reducing - adverse effects - trends
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Mass Media - trends
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Sweden
Weight Gain
Abstract
In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.
Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.
Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.
Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986-1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Notes
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PubMed ID
22686621 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk: A Cohort Study Among Swedish Men and Women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287961
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Oct 31;5(11)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-31-2016
Author
Anders Grøntved
Robert W Koivula
Ingegerd Johansson
Patrik Wennberg
Lars Østergaard
Göran Hallmans
Frida Renström
Paul W Franks
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Oct 31;5(11)
Date
Oct-31-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bicycling
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Glucose Intolerance - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Hypertriglyceridemia - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Bicycling to work may be a viable approach for achieving physical activity that provides cardiovascular health benefits. In this study we investigated the relationship of bicycling to work with incidence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance across a decade of follow-up in middle-aged men and women.
We followed 23 732 Swedish men and women with a mean age of 43.5 years at baseline who attended a health examination twice during a 10-year period (1990-2011). In multivariable adjusted models we calculated the odds of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors. Cycling to work at baseline was associated with lower odds of incident obesity (odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), hypertension (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.95), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.94), and impaired glucose tolerance (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.96) compared with passive travel after adjusting for putative confounding factors. Participants who maintained or began bicycling to work during follow-up had lower odds of obesity (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.73), hypertension (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.90), and impaired glucose tolerance (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up.
These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged men and women.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27799235 View in PubMed
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Biomarkers of milk fat and the risk of myocardial infarction in men and women: a prospective, matched case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96924
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):194-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Eva Warensjö
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Tommy Cederholm
Kurt Boman
Mats Eliasson
Göran Hallmans
Ingegerd Johansson
Per Sjögren
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. eva.warensjo@pubcare.uu.se
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):194-202
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Blood pressure
Cohort Studies
Dietary Fats - adverse effects
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Milk - adverse effects
Models, Statistical
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Patient Selection
Phospholipids - blood - pharmacology
Questionnaires
Reference Values
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: High intakes of saturated fat have been associated with cardiovascular disease, and milk fat is rich in saturated fat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the serum milk fat biomarkers pentadecanoic acid (15:0), heptadecanoic acid (17:0), and their sum (15:0+17:0) and a first myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: The study design was a prospective case-control study nested within a large population-based cohort in Sweden. Included in the study were 444 cases (307 men) and 556 controls (308 men) matched on sex, age, date of examination, and geographic region. Clinical, anthropometric, biomarker fatty acid, physical activity, and dietary data were collected. The odds of a first MI were investigated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: In women, proportions of milk fat biomarkers in plasma phospholipids were significantly higher (P
PubMed ID
20484449 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort - evaluation of risk factors and their interactions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47322
Source
Scand J Public Health Suppl. 2003;61:18-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Göran Hallmans
Asa Agren
Gerd Johansson
Anders Johansson
Birgitta Stegmayr
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Bernt Lindahl
Olle Rolandsson
Stefan Söderberg
Mats Nilsson
Ingegerd Johansson
Lars Weinehall
Author Affiliation
Nutritional Research, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. goran.hallmans@nutrires.umu.se
Source
Scand J Public Health Suppl. 2003;61:18-24
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Humans
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is, first, to describe the organization, sampling procedures, availability of samples/database, ethical considerations, and quality control program of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort. Secondly, some examples are given of studies on cardiovascular disease and diabetes with a focus on the biomarker programme. The cohort has been positioned as a national and international resource for scientific research.
PubMed ID
14660243 View in PubMed
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Change in lifestyle behaviors and diabetes risk: evidence from a population-based cohort study with 10 year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283465
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Mar 29;14(1):39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-29-2017
Author
Adina L Feldman
Gráinne H Long
Ingegerd Johansson
Lars Weinehall
Eva Fhärm
Patrik Wennberg
Margareta Norberg
Simon J Griffin
Olov Rolandsson
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Mar 29;14(1):39
Date
Mar-29-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Promoting positive changes in lifestyle behavior in the whole population may be a feasible and effective approach to reducing type 2 diabetes burden, but the impact of population shifts of modifiable risk factors remains unclear. Currently most of the evidence on modifiable lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes risk on a population level comes from studies of between-individual differences. The objective of the study was to investigate the association and potential impact on disease burden for within-individual change in lifestyle behavior and diabetes risk.
Population-based prospective cohort study of 35,680 participants aged 30-50 at baseline in 1990-2003 in Västerbotten County, Sweden (follow-up until 2013). Five self-reported modifiable lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary fiber intake and dietary fat intake) were measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up. Lifestyle behaviors were studied separately, and combined in a score. Incident diabetes was detected by oral glucose tolerance tests. Multivariate logistic regression models and population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to analyze the association between change in lifestyle behavior between baseline and 10 year follow-up, and risk of incident diabetes.
Incident diabetes was detected in 1,184 (3.3%) participants at 10 year follow-up. There was a reduced diabetes risk associated with increase in dietary fiber intake, odds ratio (OR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 0.96) for increase of at least one unit standard deviation (3.0 g/1,000 kcal) of the baseline distribution, PAF 16.0% (95% CI 4.2, 26.4%). Increase in the lifestyle behavior score was associated with reduced diabetes risk, OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85, 0.99) per unit increase of the score.
These results support a causal link between lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes incidence. A small shift in lifestyle behaviors, in particular intake of dietary fiber, has the potential to reduce diabetes burden in the population and might be a suitable target for public health intervention.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28351358 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Projections for Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Sweden: A Simulation Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285263
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0160474
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Lena Björck
Annika Rosengren
Anna Winkvist
Simon Capewell
Martin Adiels
Piotr Bandosz
Julia Critchley
Kurt Boman
Maria Guzman-Castillo
Martin O'Flaherty
Ingegerd Johansson
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0160474
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cholesterol - blood
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Dietary Fats - metabolism
Fatty Acids - metabolism
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Mortality - trends
Risk factors
Smoking
Sodium Chloride, Dietary - metabolism
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025.
We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends.
In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur.
CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27490257 View in PubMed
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The combined effects of FADS gene variation and dietary fats in obesity-related traits in a population from the far north of Sweden: the GLACIER Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291944
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 May 24; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-24-2018
Author
Yan Chen
Angela C Estampador
Maria Keller
Alaitz Poveda
Jonathan Dalla-Riva
Ingegerd Johansson
Frida Renström
Azra Kurbasic
Paul W Franks
Tibor V Varga
Author Affiliation
Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Malmö, SE-214 28, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 May 24; :
Date
May-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Recent analyses in Greenlandic Inuit identified six genetic polymorphisms (rs74771917, rs3168072, rs12577276, rs7115739, rs174602 and rs174570) in the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster (FADS1-FADS2-FADS3) that are associated with multiple metabolic and anthropometric traits. Our objectives were to systematically assess whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake modifies the associations between genetic variants in the FADS gene cluster and cardiometabolic traits, and to functionally annotate top-ranking candidates to estimate their regulatory potential.
Data analyses consisted of the following: interaction analyses between the 6 candidate genetic variants and dietary PUFA intake; gene-centric joint analyses to detect interaction signals in the FADS region; haplotype-centric joint tests across 30 haplotype blocks in the FADS region to refine interaction signals; and functional annotation of top-ranking loci from the previous steps. These analyses were undertaken in Swedish adults from the GLACIER Study (N?=?5,160); data on genetic variation and eight cardiometabolic traits were used.
Interactions were observed between rs174570 and n-6 PUFA intake on fasting glucose (Pint?=?0.005) and between rs174602 and n-3 PUFA intake on total cholesterol (Pint?=?0.001). Gene-centric analyses demonstrated a statistically significant interaction effect for FADS and n-3 PUFA on triglycerides (P int ?=?0.005) considering genetic main effects as random. Haplotype analyses revealed three blocks (Pint?
PubMed ID
29795460 View in PubMed
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Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143206
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Oct;21(10):1533-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Lena Maria Nilsson
Ingegerd Johansson
Per Lenner
Bernt Lindahl
Bethany Van Guelpen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. lena.nilsson@nutrires.umu.se
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Oct;21(10):1533-44
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Coffee
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Cooking
Drinking
Female
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Despite potentially relevant chemical differences between filtered and boiled coffee, this study is the first to investigate consumption in relation to the risk of incident cancer.
Subjects were from the Västerbotten Intervention Project (64,603 participants, including 3,034 cases), with up to 15 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariate Cox regression.
No associations were found for all cancer sites combined, or for prostate or colorectal cancer. For breast cancer, boiled coffee =4 versus
PubMed ID
20512657 View in PubMed
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Dairy intake revisited - associations between dairy intake and lifestyle related cardio-metabolic risk factors in a high milk consuming population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300924
Source
Nutr J. 2018 11 22; 17(1):110
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-22-2018
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Lena Maria Nilsson
Anders Esberg
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@umu.se.
Source
Nutr J. 2018 11 22; 17(1):110
Date
11-22-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Blood glucose
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dairy Products
Diet - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Milk - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sweden
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
The association between milk and dairy intake and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and mortality has been evaluated in many studies, but these studies have had conflicting results with no clear conclusion on causal or confounding associations. The present study aims to further address this association by cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of the associations between exposure to various types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers among inhabitants in northern Sweden while taking other lifestyle factors into account.
Respondents in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme with complete and plausible diet data between 1991 and 2016 were included, yielding 124,934 observations from 90,512 unique subjects. For longitudinal analysis, 27,682 participants with a visit 8-12?years after the first visit were identified. All participants completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Metabolic risk markers, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum (S) cholesterol and triglycerides, and blood glucose, were measured. Participants were categorized into quintiles by intake of dairy products, and risk (odds ratios, OR) of undesirable levels of metabolic risk markers was assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. In longitudinal analyses, intake quintiles were related to desirable levels of metabolic risk markers at both visits or deterioration at follow-up using Cox regression analyses.
The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides.
Confounding factors likely contribute to the demonstrated association between dairy intake and mortality, and other medical conditions and analyses should be stratified by dairy type.
PubMed ID
30466440 View in PubMed
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Dairy Product Intake and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Northern Sweden: A 33-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299093
Source
Nutrients. 2019 Jan 28; 11(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-28-2019
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Anders Esberg
Lena M Nilsson
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Patrik Wennberg
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@umu.se.
Source
Nutrients. 2019 Jan 28; 11(2):
Date
Jan-28-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Dairy Products
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology
Diet
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Prospective Studies
Stroke - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Dairy products are important constituents of most diets, and their association with adverse health outcomes remains a focus. We characterized dairy food intake and examined associations with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke among 108,065 Swedish men and women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in a population characterized by high milk tolerance. During a mean follow-up of 14.2 years, 11,641 first-time events occurred. Non-fermented milk intake decreased, whereas butter intake increased over the period. For high intake of non-fermented milk, the HR (95% CI) for developing T2D and MI was 1.17 (1.03, 1.34) and 1.23 (1.10, 1.37), respectively, in men. A greater intake of butter, fermented milk, and cheese tended to be associated with a reduced risk of T2D and/or MI. Non-consumers and those who chose low-fat variants of the targeted dairy products had increased risk for T2D, MI, or stroke compared to those in the non-case group. Generally, effect-sizes were small. This prospective study found that non-fermented milk was associated with an increased risk for developing T2D and MI and that subjects abstaining from dairy products or choosing low-fat variants were at greater risk. However, the overall cardiometabolic risk of non-fermented milk intake was judged as low, since the effect sizes were small.
PubMed ID
30696081 View in PubMed
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