This study was undertaken to examine bone properties in masters sprinters of different ages and younger reference subjects. In addition, the association of sport-specific ground reaction force, muscle, training, and hormone characteristics with the bone parameters was evaluated in the athletes.
Bone densitometric, structural, and strength parameters were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal and midtibia in 83 male sprinters (40-85 yr) and 19 physically active referents (31-45 yr). Between-group differences were analyzed by ANCOVA with body mass and height as covariates.
Bone values were generally greater in athletes than referents, the greatest differences being in bending strength of the tibia shaft as estimated by maximum moment of inertia (Imax). Among athletes, trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of distal tibia was 12% (P
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is considered a bone-preserving procedure and may eliminate proximal femoral stress shielding and osteolysis. However, in addition to implant-related stress-shielding factors, various patient-related factors may also have an effect on bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur in patients with HRA. Thus, we studied the effects of stem-neck angle, demographic variables, and physical functioning on the BMD of the proximal femur in a one-year follow-up.
Thirty three patients (9 females and 24 males) with a mean (SD) age of 55 (9) years were included in the study. BMD was measured two days and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and 10 regions of interest (ROI) were used. Stem-neck angle was analyzed from anteroposterior radiographs.
Three months postoperatively, BMD decreased in six out of 10 regions of interest (ROI) on the side operated on and in one ROI on the control side (p
*Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland †Unit of Family Practice, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyvaskyla, Finland ‡Medcare Foundation, Aanekoski, Finland §Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland ¶Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; and ?ORTON Rehabilitation Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
To describe the occurrence of spinal disorders (SDs) resulting in disability pension (DP) in Finland during 1990-2010.
The indirect cost of SD is excessive. The most significant indirect cost is due to DP. There are no nationwide long-term studies of DP trends caused by SDs.
The study setting consisted of Finnish working population (20-64 yr). All new cases were identified from the nationwide register maintained by the Finnish Centre of Pensions from the beginning of 1990 to the end of 2010. The data included sex, age group, year of the DP decision, and the main cause of incapacity (diagnosis) leading to DP. Main outcome measure was DPs due to SDs.
A total of 84,375 individuals (40,415 females; 43,960 males) received DP during the study period. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.44-0.46) between time periods of 1990-1994 and 2005-2010. In males, crude incidence in 1990-1994 was 21.0 (95% CI: 20.6-21.3) per 10,000 person-years and in 2005-2010, it was 11.1 (10.9 to 11.3). In females, it was 18.8 (95% CI: 18.5-19.1) and 11.4 (95% CI: 11.1-11.6). During the study period, the overall DP rate also decreased. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.65-0.67) between the time periods 1990-1994 and 2005-2010. However, the proportion of DPs due to the SDs of all new DPs was higher in the first half of 1990s than in 2005-2010 (adjusted proportion 19.6% [95% CI: 19.4-19.8] vs. 14.4% [95% CI: 14.2-14.6]).
The occurrence of DPs due to SDs has decreased significantly during the period of 1990-2010 in Finland. On the basis of the register data, nonmedical factors and legislative reforms may explain the decrease of DPs more than treatments provided by health care.
Effects of a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program on the biochemical composition and morphology of cartilage in women with mild knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee result in decreased function, loss of working capacity and extensive social and medical costs. There is a need to investigate and develop effective interventions to minimise the impact of and even prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Aquatic exercise has been shown to be effective at reducing the impact of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, design and intervention of a study investigating the effect of an aquatic resistance exercise intervention on cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis.
A minimum of 80 volunteers who meet the inclusion criteria will be recruited from the local population through newspaper advertisements. Following initial assessment volunteers will be randomised into two groups. The intervention group will participate in a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program of 1-hour duration 3 times a week for four months. The control group will be asked to maintain normal care during this period. Primary outcome measure for this study is the biochemical composition of knee cartilage measured using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging; T2 relaxation time and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition, knee cartilage morphology as regional cartilage thickness will be studied. Secondary outcomes include measures of body composition and bone traits using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pain, function using questionnaires and physical performance tests and quality of life. Measurements will be performed at baseline, after the 4-month intervention period and at one year follow up.
This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program has on the biochemical composition of cartilage in post-menopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. This is the first study to investigate what impact aquatic exercise has on human articular cartilage. In addition it will investigate the effect aquatic exercise has on physical function, pain, bone and body composition and quality of life. The results of this study will help optimise the prescription of aquatic exercise to persons with mild knee osteoarthritis.
The overall incidence of fractures has been addressed in several studies, but there are few data on different types of fractures that require inpatient care, even though they account for considerable healthcare costs. We determined the incidence of limb and spine fractures that required hospitalization in people aged = 16 years.
We collected data on the diagnosis (ICD10 code), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 9 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Incidence rates were calculated for all fractures using data on the population at risk.
During the study period, 3,277 women and 2,708 men sustained 3,750 and 3,030 fractures, respectively. The incidence of all fractures was 4.9 per 10(3) person years (95% CI: 4.8-5.0). The corresponding numbers for women and men were 5.3 (5.1-5.4) and 4.5 (4.3-4.6). Fractures of the hip, ankle, wrist, spine, and proximal humerus comprised two-thirds of all fractures requiring hospitalization. The proportion of ankle fractures (17%) and wrist fractures (9%) was equal to that of hip fractures (27%). Four-fifths of the hospitalized fracture patients were operated. In individuals aged
In Central Finland, the age-specific incidence of hip fractures did not change between the years 1982-1983 and 1992-1993 though the total number of hip fractures increased by 11% due to population aging. The objective of this study was to define the current hip fracture rates and the characteristics of patients with hip fracture. The population at risk consisted of 240,000 persons living in the Central Finland Health Care District. Hip fracture patients were identified by using the hospital discharge register, the operation lists, and the register of the Department of Anesthesiology. Patients' residential status, weight, and height, date and time of hip fracture, place of accident and mechanism and type of fracture were obtained from medical records. A total of 597 patients, 415 (69.5%) women and 182 (30.5%) men, were admitted to the hospital for treatment of an acute hip fracture in 2002-2003. The mean age of the patients was 79 (SD 13) years. Among patients aged > or =50 years (n = 577), 80.8% of the hip fractures had occurred indoors, 97.6% with a low-energetic mechanism, and 22.7% during the nighttime. The ratio of trochanteric to cervical fractures was 2:3. Between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003, the total number of hip fractures increased by 70%, from 351 to 597. The fracture rates per 1000 person-years in the age group > or =55 years were 2.0 and 3.9 in 1992-1993 and 2.8 and 5.6 in 2002-2003 for men and women, respectively. The corresponding age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for men was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.06 to 1.76), P = 0.017, and for women 1.25 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.47), P = 0.006. Among men, the IRR was highest in the age group 75-84 years, IRR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08 to 2.65), while among women, it was highest in the age group > or =85 years, IRR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.75). The total number of hip fractures almost doubled within 10 years, and the age-adjusted incidence rate increased in both sexes. The accretion of the hip fracture incidence was more than could be explained merely by changes in population size and structure.
Background and purpose - The association between mortality and lower extremity fractures (other than hip fractures in older individuals) is unclear. We therefore investigated mortality in adults of all ages after lower extremity fractures that required inpatient care. Patients and methods - Diagnosis code (ICD10), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 7 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward at Central Finland Hospital were collected between 2002 and 2008 (n = 3,567). Patients were followed up until the end of 2012. Mortality rates were calculated for patients with all types of lower extremity fractures using data from the population at risk. Results - During the study, 2,081 women and 1,486 men sustained a lower extremity fracture. By the end of follow-up (mean duration 5 years), 42% of the women and 32% of the men had died. For all lower extremity fractures, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.8-2.0) for women and 2.6 (CI: 2.4-2.9) for men. In patients aged =65 years, mortality was increased and of similar magnitude after fractures of the hip, femoral diaphysis, and knee (distal femur, patella, and proximal tibia). In patients aged
Increased mortality after hip fracture is well documented. The mortality after hospitalization for upper extremity fracture is unknown, even though these are common injuries. Here we determined mortality after hospitalization for upper extremity fracture in patients aged =16 years.
We collected data about the diagnosis code (ICD10), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 7 additional characteristics of 5,985 patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. During the study, 929 women and 753 men sustained an upper extremity fracture. The patients were followed up until the end of 2012. Mortality rates were calculated using data on the population at risk.
By the end of follow-up (mean duration 6 years), 179 women (19%) and 105 men (14%) had died. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all patients was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.7). The SMR was higher for men (2.1, CI: 1.7-2.5) than for women (1.3, CI: 1.1-1.5) (p
The objective of this study is to present the paid expenditures and productivity costs of disability pensions (DP) due to spinal disorders (SD) in Finland during 1990-2010.
This study is a register-based national study. All new cases aged 20-64 that were granted a DP due to SD were identified from the nationwide register maintained by the Finnish Centre of Pensions. The data included sex, age group, year of the DP decision, main cause of incapacity (diagnosis) leading to permanent DP and yearly paid expenditures for DPs. Annual productivity costs were estimated based on labour force participation rate and the employment rate adjusted gross domestic product.
A total of 39,107 individuals (18,072 females, 21,035 males) received DPs during the study period. SDs generated 9,372 million euros extra cost during this period due to DP (females 3.5 billion, males 5.9 billion). The total DP expenditures paid increased during the first half of 1990s but decreased during the second half of 1990s (-44.8 %). For degenerative SD cases, the DP expenditure was 5.1 billion €, disc disease 3.5 billion € and for other SDs 0.7 billion €. Males, compared to females, were expected to have a rate 1.22 times greater costs due to DPs. The estimated total annual productivity costs due to SDs have been over six times higher than expenditures paid for DPs per year. The costs of DPs are different compared to occurrence rates due to salary and early retirement age differences between genders.
Despite a significant decrease in DP-associated expenditures due to SDs after 1993, the annual expenditures have stayed on a high level in Finland.