The objective of this research was to describe the use and incorrect use of child restraint systems in Manitoba, Canada. In 2004, a team of inspectors made up of Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers and trained car seat technicians from the Manitoba child seat coalition conducted a descriptive survey of types and frequency of child restraint systems' incorrect use. The setting was 10 roadside inspection sites located around the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba. The subjects were parents and primary caregivers of children using child restraint systems. The main outcome measured was the reported appropriate use rate as determined by the compliance to safety standards for correct installation and use of child restraints. A total of 340 child restraint systems were assessed. The overall rate of incorrect use was 70%. The errors present in stage III systems (booster seats) are much lower than the errors present in stage I systems (rear-facing child safety seats) and stage II systems (forward-facing child safety seats). The data presented illustrate that incorrect use of child restraint systems in the province of Manitoba is a large problem and must be dealt with immediately in order to ensure child safety now and in the future. Community-wide information and enhanced enforcement campaigns, consisting of activities such as mass media, information and publicity, child restraint systems displays and special enforcement strategies (check points, dedicated law enforcement officials, alternative penalties) should be used to increase the correct use of child restraint systems. Failure to use child restraint systems properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child.
There is an overwhelmingly high incidence of severe injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) among Aboriginal Canadians as compared with the general population.
The authors obtained MVC data for a 3-year period, 2003-2005, from Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI) for collisions occurring on on-reserve roads (n = 1270) together with a randomly selected sample of MVCs from off-reserve roads (n = 1270) in Saskatchewan. They compared the collision characteristics using bivariate and multiple logistic regressions.
On-reserve MVCs were more likely to include multiple collisions and result in severe injuries than the off-reserve sample. A number of factors were significantly related to the increased risk of on-reserve collisions as compared with the reference group for each variable.
Factors from all 3 levels (human, environmental, and vehicle factors) are associated with on-reserve MVCs.
To develop a set of national injury indicators for Canadian children and youth which will eventually be used to reflect and monitor identified prevention priorities.
The Canadian Injury Indicators Development Team brought together injury researchers, policy makers, and practitioners to develop injury indicators in the following areas: overall health services implications; motor vehicle occupant; sports, recreation, and leisure; violence; and trauma care, quality, and outcomes. A modified-Delphi process was used to establish a set of indicators that met evidence-based criteria, were useful, and that would prompt action. Each indicator was rated by 132 respondent injury experts and stakeholders on its usefulness and ability to prompt action to reduce injury among Canadian children and youth.
From an initial list of 51 indicators, a refined set of 34 indicators was established. Indicators were grouped into three categories related to: policies; risk and protective factors; and outcomes. Indicators related to motor vehicle injury were rated as most useful and most able to prompt action. Injury mortality rate and injury hospitalisation rate were also rated highly for both usefulness and ability to prompt action. Policy, violence, sport and recreation, and trauma indicators were all rated higher for usefulness, but somewhat lower for ability to prompt action.
Results suggest that a broad-based modified-Delphi process is an important first step in developing useful and relevant indicators for injury prevention activity focused on Canadian children and youth.
This article describes the epidemiology of child pedestrian fatalities in British Columbia using data generated by the province's Child Death Review Unit, to demonstrate the unique capacity of child death review to provide an ecological understanding of child mortality and catalyse evidence based, multi-level prevention strategies.
All child pedestrian fatalities in British Columbia from 1 January 1 2003 to 31 December 2008 were reviewed. Data on demographics, circumstance of injury, and risk factors related to the child, driver, vehicle, and physical environment were extracted. Frequency of sociodemographic variables and modifiable risk factors were calculated, followed by statistical comparisons against the general population for Aboriginal ancestry, gender, ethnicity, income assistance and driver violations using z and t tests.
Analysis of child pedestrian fatalities (n=33) found a significant overrepresentation of Aboriginal children (p=0.06), males (p
Takuro Ishikawa, Eugenia Oudie, Kate Turcotte, and Ian Pike are with, and Ediriweera Desapriya was with the BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit; the University of British Columbia; and the Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community's circumstances and culture.
Passive surveillance using ICD codes for hospital discharges has been used to estimate the incidence of abusive head trauma (AHT) utilizing ICD-9-CM, but not ICD-10, codes. There have been no incidence estimates of AHT in Canada where ICD-10 codes have been used since 2002. The Discharge Abstract Database from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (CIHI) for 2002-2007 was used for analyses conducted in 2011. A case was defined by code combinations that indexed injury specificity (narrow or broad) and degree of certainty (presumptive or probable) that the injury was inflicted. Estimated incidences for the populations at risk in those aged