We wanted to study the effects of a 600 micrograms inhaled salbutamol dose on the cardiovascular and respiratory autonomic nervous regulation in eight children suffering from bronchial asthma.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study we continuously measured electrocardiogram, finger systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and flow-volume spirometry at baseline as well as 20 min and 2 h after the drug inhalation. The R-R interval (the time between successive heart beats) and SAP variabilities were assessed by using spectral analysis. Baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by using cross-spectral analysis.
Salbutamol significantly decreased the total and low frequency (LF) variability of R-R intervals as well as the high frequency (HF) variability of R-R intervals and of SAP. Salbutamol significantly increased the LF/HF ratio of R-R intervals and of SAP, minute ventilation, heart rate and forced pulmonary function in comparison with placebo. The weight of the subjects significantly correlated positively with baroreflex sensitivity and negatively with heart rate after the salbutamol inhalation.
We conclude that the acute salbutamol inhalation decreases cardiovagal nervous responsiveness, increases sympathetic dominance in the cardiovascular autonomic balance, and has a tendency to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in addition to improved pulmonary function.
Nineteen patients were involved in an outbreak of infection caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 3. No epidemics attributable to this microorganism have been previously reported; the most extensive known cluster of cases involved four children in one family and their pet dog. The key finding in the outbreak described in the present study was the bacteriologic identification of serotype 3 in stool specimens from patients with clinically typical yersiniosis. Twelve cases were identified by isolation of Y pseudotuberculosis from stool specimens. An ELISA permitted serological diagnosis of the remaining seven cases. The antibody response was unusually slow in some patients. A noteworthy feature of the outbreak was the high incidence of postinfection complications, which developed in 10 of 19 patients. In spite of active screening of the respective families and environments of the patients, no transmitting factor was found, and the precise source of the infection remains unknown.
Risk factors such as high serum cholesterol concentration measured in young adulthood predict premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in the middle-aged. The objective of this study was to analyze the associations between physical activity and CHD risk factors--body composition, blood pressure, serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and insulin--in children and young adults. The design was a cross-sectional study of atherosclerosis precursors in children and young adults using a cohort of children and young adults (N = 2,358) aged 9 to 24 years to determine indices of physical activity, measurements of anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, serum lipids, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and insulin. The results show that a high level of physical activity was associated with high serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C concentrations, and low levels of serum triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B and insulin in males. However, in females, the influence of physical activity was evident only on TG level. In both genders, physical activity was inversely associated with obesity. In all these associations, a significant dose-related relationship was observed. We found no association between physical activity and blood pressure. In conclusion, physical activity is associated with a favorable serum lipid profile already during childhood and early adulthood in a dose-related manner, particularly in males. The promotion of physical activity is important in childhood in preventing obesity and premature cardiovascular disease.
As part of the more extensive project concerned with atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children, this article aims at describing the method developed for epidemiological estimation of habitual physical activity, discussing the reliability and validity of the method and reporting the results of the application of this strategy in the measurement of habitual physical activity among 3 to 18-year-old Finnish boys and girls. The questionnaire for the measurement of physical activity was addressed to the parents of 3- and 6-year-old subjects (younger group) and to the subjects themselves in 9- to 18-year-olds (older group). Using four variables in the younger group and nine variables in the older group, sum indices of physical activity were made. Internal consistency coefficients (Kuder--Richardson) varied in the younger group from .57 to .63 and in the older group from .56 to .79. Most Finnish children and adolescents were physically active during their leisure-time. For comparison of passive and active children, screening for passive ones was difficult. Differences between East and West Finland associated with many risk factors, were not detected in the physical activity patterns of children and adolescents. On the other hand, the physical activity pattern was significantly determined by the local environment. In sparsely populated areas, young people were more inactive than in densely populated areas.
Risk for coronary heart disease is increased in adult Caucasians with high serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration. In adults the concentration is mainly regulated by genetic factors. Our previous study suggests that breast milk has a beneficial effect on serum Lp(a) concentration in infants. Now we analyzed the influence of weaning by measuring serum Lp(a) and cholesterol in 414 infants at 7, 13, 24, and 36 mo of age. At 7 mo the infants received, in addition to solid food, only breast milk (n = 148), breast milk and formula (n = 74), or formula only (n = 191). Median (range) serum Lp(a) concentrations were then 25 (
The concentration of Cr, Zn, Ni, V, Pb, and Cd were measured in lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) sampled at 23 sampling sites around a ferrochrome and stainless steel works and opencast chromium mine in the Kemi-Tornio region, Northern Finland. Two different microwave-assisted digestion procedures were used for sample digestion, i.e., a mixture of HNO3 + H2O2 and a mixture of HNO3 + H2O2 + HCl + HF + H3BO3. According to the results, the digestion procedure with the mixture of HNO3 + H2O2 underestimated especially the Cr concentrations in plant material. The maximum concentrations of Cr (1.3 mg kg(-1), wet weight), Ni (358 microg kg(-1); ww), V (36 microg kg(-1); ww), and Cd (2.4 microg kg(-1); ww) in the immediate vicinity of the point sources were 33, 6, 4, and 8 times higher than the background levels, respectively. The dietary intakes of Cd and Pb were assessed and compared to the health criteria recommendations set by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results showed that, depending on the consumption of lingonberries, human exposure based on the mean concentrations for Pb and Cd varied between 0.04% and 0.07% for Pb and between 0.04% and 0.09% for Cd compared to the tolerable total quantities of 25 microg kg(-1) for Pb and 7 microg kg(-1) for Cd per body weight per week set by JECFA.
Nutrient intakes by young children in a prospective randomized trial of a low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet. The STRIP Baby Project. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Babies.
To evaluate the impact of individualized and repeatedly given dietary counseling on fat intake and nutrient intake of children aged 8 months to 4 years.
Prospective randomized clinical trial.
Children (N = 1062) from 1054 families were randomized to an intervention (n = 540) or a control (n = 522) group when each child participant was 6 months old.
The children in the intervention group were counseled to reduce their intake of saturated fat and cholesterol but to ensure their adequate energy intake. Dietary issues were discussed with the families of the children in the control group only briefly according to the current practice of well-baby clinics.
Food consumption was evaluated by using 3- and 4-day food records that were kept at 5- to 12-month intervals, and nutrient intakes were analyzed with a Micro Nutrica computer program (Social Insurance Institution, Turku, Finland).
The intake of fat (29% of the energy intake) and cholesterol (70 mg) showed no differences between the groups of children at 8 months of age. The fat intake in the children in the intervention group was then continuously 2% of the energy intake below that of the children in the control group (P
Fetal distress changes the function of the autonomic nervous system. These changes are reflected in the fetal heart rate and can be quantified with power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. The purpose of this study was to find out whether spectral components of fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) during labor are associated with fetal cord arterial base deficit values at birth. The association between FHRV and umbilical cord arterial base deficit was studied in 14 singleton fetuses with normal pregnancy at 35-40 weeks of gestation. Fetal ECG was recorded by scalp-electrode using a STAN Fetal ECG monitor (Cinventa Ab, Mölndal, Sweden). FHRV was quantified by computing Fast-Fourier-transformed heart rate (HR) spectra at three frequency bands: low-frequency (LF) 0.03-0.07 Hz, mid-frequency (MF) 0.07-0.13 Hz and high-frequency (HF) 0.13-1.0 Hz. We found that total FHRV and MF FHRV were lower in fetuses with cord arterial base deficit 8 to 12 mmol/L in comparison to the fetuses with normal cord arterial base deficit value (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). A linear correlation was found between the spectral densities and the cord arterial base deficit values (r=0.4 and r=0.6, respectively). We conclude that the results suggest changes in the autonomic nervous cardiac control in fetuses with cord arterial base deficit between 8 to 12 mmol/L. The clinical applicability of our observations on FHRV in predicting fetal distress remains to be further studied.