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Social functioning of patients with schizophrenia in high-income welfare societies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52507
Source
Psychiatr Serv. 2000 Feb;51(2):223-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
I. Melle
S. Friis
E. Hauff
P. Vaglum
Author Affiliation
Department of Research and Education of the Division of Psychiatry, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Psychiatr Serv. 2000 Feb;51(2):223-8
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Chronic Disease
Developed Countries - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Homeless Persons - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sampling Studies
Schizophrenia - rehabilitation
Social Adjustment
Social Isolation
Social Welfare
Unemployment
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The study assessed the level of reintegration into the community of patients with schizophrenia in Oslo, Norway, a country with a well-developed social welfare system and low unemployment rates. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia treated in 1980 and in 1983 in a short-term ward of a psychiatric hospital were followed up after seven years. Seventy-four of 76 patients alive at follow-up agreed to participate. Social functioning was measured by the Strauss-Carpenter Level of Functioning Scale and the Social Adjustment Scale. RESULTS: At follow-up 78 percent of patients lived independently, 47 percent were socially isolated, and 94 percent were unemployed. Thirty-four percent had lost employment in the follow-up period. A poor outcome in terms of social functioning and community reintegration was associated with loss of employment. A good outcome was predicted by short periods of inpatient hospitalization, high levels of education, being married, male gender, and not having a late onset of psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: The level of homelessness among these patients with schizophrenia was encouragingly low, which may have been expected in a high-income welfare society. However, insufficient efforts were aimed at social and instrumental rehabilitation, and the level of unemployment was alarmingly high.
PubMed ID
10655007 View in PubMed
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The UllevÄl acute ward follow-up study: a personal 7-year follow-up of patients with functional psychosis admitted to the acute ward of a catchment area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68594
Source
Psychopathology. 1991;24(5):316-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
S. Friis
E. Hauff
T K Island
S. Lorentzen
I. Melle
P. Vaglum
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Department B, Ullevål University Hospital, Norway.
Source
Psychopathology. 1991;24(5):316-27
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Catchment Area (Health)
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Eighty-eight patients were admitted to the acute ward of a catchment area suffering from the following functional psychoses: schizophrenia (S; n = 41), affective disorder (AD; n = 22), other disorders (OD; n = 25). Follow-up data were obtained for 97%. Ten patients were dead at follow-up, 8 due to suicide. Sixty-five were personally interviewed. While nearly all the patients had only brief periods of rehospitalization, most had used neuroleptics during the follow-up period. Compared to other samples, functioning at follow-up was fairly good for the AD and OD patients, but rather poor for the S patients.
PubMed ID
1784708 View in PubMed
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Childhood trauma mediates the association between ethnic minority status and more severe hallucinations in psychotic disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265239
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
A O Berg
M. Aas
S. Larsson
M. Nerhus
E. Hauff
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Asia - ethnology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethnic groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hallucinations - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
Ethnic minority status and childhood trauma are established risk factors for psychotic disorders. Both are found to be associated with increased level of positive symptoms, in particular auditory hallucinations. Our main aim was to investigate the experience and effect of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis from ethnic minorities, hypothesizing that they would report more childhood trauma than the majority and that this would be associated with more current and lifetime hallucinations.
In this cross-sectional study we included 454 patients with a SCID-I DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective or affective psychotic disorder. Current hallucinations were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P3; Hallucinatory Behaviour). Lifetime hallucinations were assessed with the SCID-I items: auditory hallucinations, voices commenting and two or more voices conversing. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, self-report version.
Patients from ethnic minority groups (n = 69) reported significantly more childhood trauma, specifically physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse. They had significantly more current hallucinatory behaviour and lifetime symptoms of hearing two or more voices conversing. Regression analyses revealed that the presence of childhood trauma mediated the association between ethnic minorities and hallucinations.
More childhood trauma in ethnic minorities with psychosis may partially explain findings of more positive symptoms, especially hallucinations, in this group. The association between childhood trauma and these first-rank symptoms may in part explain this group's higher risk of being diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. The findings show the importance of childhood trauma in symptom development in psychosis.
PubMed ID
25065296 View in PubMed
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Sleep problems in bipolar disorders: more than just insomnia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279446
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016 May;133(5):368-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
M K Steinan
J. Scott
T V Lagerberg
I. Melle
O A Andreassen
A E Vaaler
G. Morken
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016 May;133(5):368-77
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disorders of Excessive Somnolence - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Sleep problems in bipolar disorder (BD) are common, but reported rates vary from 10% to 80%, depending on definitions, methodologies and management of potential confounding factors. This multicenter study seeks to address these issues and also compares BD cases with Hypersomnia as well as the more commonly investigated Insomnia and No Sleep Problem groups.
A cross-sectional comparison of sleep profiles in 563 BD I and II individuals who participated in a structured assessment of demographic, clinical, illness history and treatment variables.
Over 40% cases met criteria for Insomnia and 29% for Hypersomnia. In univariate analysis, Insomnia was associated with BD II depression whilst Hypersomnia was associated with BD I depression or euthymia. After controlling for confounders and covariates, it was demonstrated that Hypersomnia cases were significantly more likely to be younger, have BD I and be prescribed antidepressants whilst Insomnia cases had longer illness durations and were more likely to be prescribed benzodiazepines and hypnotics.
Whilst Insomnia symptoms are common in BD, Hypersomnia is a significant, frequently underexplored problem. Detailed analyses of large representative clinical samples are critical to extending our knowledge of differences between subgroups defined by sleep profile.
PubMed ID
26590799 View in PubMed
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