Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
The authors have summed up their 12-year experience in forming a system of organizational measures for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases in an industrial area with the adult population of 3,616 mln. The major stages of diagnosis were studied, measures for its improvement defined, the main causes of diagnostic errors brought to light. The authors are of opinion that separate examination of patients with pulmonary pathology in different institutions is inappropriate.
The paper is concerned with the description of clinical, x-ray and morphological investigation of 123 bronchoalveolar cancer patients. Three types of this disease were defined: nodular (homogeneous and nonhomogeneous), pneumonia-like (infiltrative and infiltrative-nodular) and mixed (focal-disseminated, focal-nodular and focal-infiltrative). These types of bronchoalveolar cancer are most probably stages of the same tumor process. Clinical and x-ray signs of each type showed correlation with a morphological picture of a tumor. Shadow nonhomogeneity as one of the main x-ray signs of bronchoalveolar cancer was shown to be determined by the "alveolar" structure of a tumor, a tendency to the formation of small cavities, filled with viscous mucosa and air. Correct clinical and x-ray diagnosis in all types of bronchoalveolar cancer (before the use of the morphological methods) was established in 45.5% of the patients.