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Craniofacial dysmorphology in Swedish schizophrenia patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176254
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005 Mar;111(3):202-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
B D Kelly
A. Lane
I. Agartz
K M Henriksson
T F McNeil
Author Affiliation
Stanley Research Unit, St John of God Psychiatric Service, Stillorgan, Co Dublin, Ireland.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005 Mar;111(3):202-7
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anthropometry
Craniofacial Abnormalities - diagnosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Therapy - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Psychotropic Drugs - therapeutic use
Schizophrenia - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To perform detailed assessments of craniofacial dysmorphology in individuals with schizophrenia and controls in Sweden, in order to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia.
We performed detailed, anthropometric assessments of craniofacial dysmorphology in male patients with schizophrenia (n=24), healthy controls (n=16), and patients' siblings with schizophrenia (n=2) in Sweden, while remaining as blind as possible to schizophrenia/control status.
Individuals with schizophrenia evidenced significantly more craniofacial dysmorphology than controls, especially in the ears and mouth. At a group level, there was a dose-response type relationship between total dysmorphology score and patient/control status.
The consistency of results across multiple studies supports the hypothesis that individuals with schizophrenia have increased rates of prenatal developmental disturbances. The presence of a dose-response type relationship between total dysmorphology score and patient/control status supports the importance of neurodevelopmental disturbance as a contributory cause of schizophrenia.
PubMed ID
15701104 View in PubMed
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Pre- and perinatal hypoxia associated with hippocampus/amygdala volume in bipolar disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261475
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Apr;44(5):975-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
U K Haukvik
T. McNeil
E H Lange
I. Melle
A M Dale
O A Andreassen
I. Agartz
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Apr;44(5):975-85
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Amygdala - pathology
Asphyxia Neonatorum - epidemiology - pathology
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - pathology
Comorbidity
Female
Fetal Hypoxia - epidemiology - pathology
Hippocampus - pathology
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Pre- and perinatal adversities may increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hypoxia-related obstetric complications (OCs) are associated with brain anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, but their association with brain anatomy variation in bipolar disorder is unknown.
Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, clinical examinations and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were obtained for 219 adults, including 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder (age 29.4 years, s.d. = 11.8 years, 39% male) and 140 healthy controls (age 30.8 years, s.d. = 12.0 years, 53% male). Severe hypoxia-related OCs throughout pregnancy/birth and perinatal asphyxia were each studied in relation to a priori selected brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricles and amygdala, obtained with FreeSurfer), using linear regression models covarying for age, sex, medication use and intracranial volume. Multiple comparison adjustment was applied.
Perinatal asphyxia was associated with smaller left amygdala volume (t = -2.59, p = 0.012) in bipolar disorder patients, but not in healthy controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed distinct associations between perinatal asphyxia and smaller left amygdala volume (t = -2.69, p = 0.010), whereas patients with non-psychotic bipolar disorder showed smaller right hippocampal volumes related to both perinatal asphyxia (t = -2.60, p = 0.015) and severe OCs (t = -3.25, p = 0.003). No associations between asphyxia or severe OCs and the lateral ventricles were found.
Pre- and perinatal hypoxia-related OCs are related to brain morphometry in bipolar disorder in adulthood, with specific patterns in patients with psychotic versus non-psychotic illness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23803260 View in PubMed
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Additive effects of childhood abuse and cannabis abuse on clinical expressions of bipolar disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261461
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Jun;44(8):1653-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
M. Aas
B. Etain
F. Bellivier
C. Henry
T. Lagerberg
A. Ringen
I. Agartz
S. Gard
J-P Kahn
M. Leboyer
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Jun;44(8):1653-62
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - physiopathology
Child
Child Abuse - statistics & numerical data
Female
France - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies of bipolar disorders indicate that childhood abuse and substance abuse are associated with the disorder. Whether both influence the clinical picture, or if one is mediating the association of the other, has not previously been investigated.
A total of 587 patients with bipolar disorders were recruited from Norway and France. A history of childhood abuse was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Diagnosis and clinical variables, including substance abuse, were based on structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders or French version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies).
Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with childhood abuse, specifically emotional and sexual abuse (? 2 = 8.63, p = 0.003 and ? 2 = 7.55, p = 0.006, respectively). Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with earlier onset of the illness (z = -4.17, p
PubMed ID
24028906 View in PubMed
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No progressive brain changes during a 1-year follow-up of patients with first-episode psychosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276617
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb;46(3):589-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
U K Haukvik
C B Hartberg
S. Nerland
K N Jørgensen
E H Lange
C. Simonsen
R. Nesvåg
A M Dale
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
I. Agartz
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb;46(3):589-98
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Bipolar Disorder - drug therapy - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Cerebral Cortex - pathology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychotic Disorders - drug therapy - pathology
Schizophrenia - drug therapy - pathology
Young Adult
Abstract
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show structural brain abnormalities. Whether the changes are progressive or not remain under debate, and the results from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are mixed. We investigated if FEP patients showed a different pattern of regional brain structural change over a 1-year period compared with healthy controls, and if putative changes correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome.
MRIs of 79 FEP patients [SCID-I-verified diagnoses: schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder, or other psychoses, mean age 27.6 (s.d. = 7.7) years, 66% male] and 82 healthy controls [age 29.3 (s.d. = 7.2) years, 66% male] were acquired from the same 1.5 T scanner at baseline and 1-year follow-up as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study, Oslo, Norway. Scans were automatically processed with the longitudinal stream in FreeSurfer that creates an unbiased within-subject template image. General linear models were used to analyse longitudinal change in a wide range of subcortical volumes and detailed thickness and surface area estimates across the entire cortex, and associations with clinical characteristics.
FEP patients and controls did not differ significantly in annual percentage change in cortical thickness or area in any cortical region, or in any of the subcortical structures after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Within the FEP group, duration of untreated psychosis, age at illness onset, antipsychotic medication use and remission at follow-up were not related to longitudinal brain change.
We found no significant longitudinal brain changes over a 1-year period in FEP patients. Our results do not support early progressive brain changes in psychotic disorders.
PubMed ID
26526001 View in PubMed
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