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Active living among older Canadians: a time-use perspective over 3 decades.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116266
Source
J Aging Phys Act. 2014 Jan;22(1):103-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Jamie E L Spinney
Hugh Millward
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Geography, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
J Aging Phys Act. 2014 Jan;22(1):103-13
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Demography
Energy Metabolism
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Independent Living - statistics & numerical data
Leisure Activities
Male
Motor Activity
Physical Exertion
Prevalence
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
This research uses four nationally representative samples of time diary data, spanning almost 30 yr, that are fused with energy expenditure information to enumerate the median daily duration of moderate or vigorous effort activity, quantify the prevalence of Canadians age 65 yr and older who are meeting recommended daily levels of physical activity, and explore the factors affecting rates of active living. Results indicate that 41.1% of older Canadians met recommended levels of physical activity in 1992, 40.6% in 1998, 43.5% in 2005, and 39.6% in 2010. Both rates of active living and daily duration of aerobic activity exhibit significant differences among sociodemographic groups, with age, sex, activity limitation, urban-rural, and season exhibiting the most significant influences. This study illustrates the potential for time diary data to provide detailed surveillance of physical activity patterns, active aging research, and program development, as well.
PubMed ID
23416414 View in PubMed
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"Active living" related to the rural-urban continuum: a time-use perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135684
Source
J Rural Health. 2011;27(2):141-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Hugh Millward
Jamie Spinney
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. hugh.millward@smu.ca
Source
J Rural Health. 2011;27(2):141-50
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Data Collection
Exercise
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Nova Scotia
Rural Population
Time Factors
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper assesses the degree to which "active living" varies along the rural-urban continuum, within the county-sized regional municipality of Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Time-diary data from the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project were used to compute daily participation rates (PRs) and time durations, at various physical effort levels, in the 4 activity domains of leisure, active transportation (AT), chores, and occupation. Geographic zones were based on the rural-urban fringe concept: the 4 zones are the Inner City (IC), Suburbs, Inner Commuter Belt (ICB), and Outer Commuter Belt (OCB). The Compendium of Physical Activities was employed to classify activity episodes into 5 effort levels. Light through maximum effort levels indicate "healthy" activities, while moderate through maximum levels indicate "aerobic" activities. Two threshold levels of "active living" were defined and calculated.
Mann-Whitney tests show that significant interzonal differences in activity-level durations exist for all domains. The IC contrasts strongly with the suburbs (more AT and active leisure, but less occupational activity), and the suburbs with the ICB, but there are fewer significant differences between the ICB and OCB. The percentage of respondents meeting "maintenance" and "enhanced" thresholds of active living is significantly higher in the OCB, and there is also significant urban-rural variation by sociodemographic characteristics.
Position along the rural-urban continuum is significantly related to PRs and mean durations for levels of physical activity, and to the proportion of respondents meeting threshold levels of active living.
PubMed ID
21457306 View in PubMed
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Walking for transport versus recreation: a comparison of participants, timing, and locations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131138
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2012 Feb;9(2):153-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Jamie E L Spinney
Hugh Millward
Darren Scott
Author Affiliation
Geography Dept, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2012 Feb;9(2):153-62
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Geographic Information Systems - instrumentation
Geography
Humans
Male
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Recreation - physiology
Self Report
Time Factors
Transportation - methods
Walking - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Walking is the most common physical activity for adults with important implications for urban planning and public health. Recreational walking has received considerably more attention than walking for transport, and differences between them remain poorly understood.
Using time-use data collected from 1971 randomly-chosen adults in Halifax, Canada, we identified walking for transport and walking for recreation events, and then computed participation rates, occurrences, mean event durations, and total daily durations in order to examine the participants and timing, while the locations were examined using origin-destination matrices. We compared differences using McNemar's test for participation rates, Wilcoxon test for occurrences and durations, and Chi-Square test for locations.
Results illustrate many significant differences between the 2 types of walking, related to participants, timing, and locations. For example, results indicate a daily average of 3.1 walking for transport events, each lasting 8 minutes on average, compared with 1.4 recreational walking events lasting 39 minutes on average. Results also indicate more than two-thirds of recreational walks are home-based, compared with less than one-fifth of transport walks.
This research highlights the importance of both types of walking, while also casting suspicion on the traditional home-based paradigm used to measure "walkability."
PubMed ID
21934161 View in PubMed
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Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143336
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2011 Mar;55(2):133-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Jamie E L Spinney
Hugh Millward
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. jamie.spinney@smu.ca
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2011 Mar;55(2):133-45
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Humans
Leisure Activities
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Nova Scotia
Seasons
Statistics as Topic
Weather
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.
PubMed ID
20499254 View in PubMed
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