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A 2-year community-randomized controlled trial of fluoride varnish to prevent early childhood caries in Aboriginal children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157658
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;36(6):503-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Herenia P Lawrence
Darlene Binguis
Jan Douglas
Lynda McKeown
Bonita Switzer
Rafael Figueiredo
Audrey Laporte
Author Affiliation
Community Dentistry Discipline, Department of Biological and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. herenia.lawrence@utoronto.ca
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;36(6):503-16
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caregivers - education
Cariostatic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use
Health Education, Dental
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sodium Fluoride - administration & dosage
Tooth, Deciduous
Abstract
To measure the effectiveness of fluoride varnish (FV) (Duraflor), 5% sodium fluoride, Pharmascience Inc., Montréal, QC, Canada) and caregiver counseling in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in Aboriginal children in a 2-year community-randomized controlled trial.
Twenty First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout Zone (SLZ), Northwest Ontario, Canada were randomized to two study groups. All caregivers received oral health counseling, while children in one group received FV twice per year and the controls received no varnish. A total of 1275, 6 months to 5-year-old children from the SLZ communities were enrolled. In addition, a convenience sample of 150 primarily non-Aboriginal children of the same age were recruited from the neighboring community of Thunder Bay and used as comparisons. Longitudinal examinations for the dmft/s indices were conducted by calibrated hygienists in 2003, 2004 and 2005.
Aboriginal children living in the SLZ or in Thunder Bay had significantly higher caries prevalence and severity than non-Aboriginal children in Thunder Bay. FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean 'net' dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for all children, using cluster analysis to adjust for the intra-cluster correlation among children in the same community. Adjusted odds ratio for caries incidence was 1.96 times higher in the controls than in the FV group (95% CI = 1.08-3.56; P = 0.027). For those caries-free at baseline, the number (of children) needed to treat (NNT) equaled 7.4.
Findings support the use of FV at least twice per year, in conjunction with caregiver counseling, to prevent ECC, reduce caries increment and oral health inequalities between young Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.
PubMed ID
18422711 View in PubMed
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Are Manitoba dentists aware of the recommendation for a first visit to the dentist by age 1 year?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153311
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2008 Dec;74(10):903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Tijana Stijacic
Robert J Schroth
Herenia P Lawrence
Author Affiliation
umschrot@cc.umanitoba.ca
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2008 Dec;74(10):903
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Dental Care for Children - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Dental Caries - prevention & control
Dentist's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Dentists - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Infant
Male
Manitoba
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Abstract
The Canadian Dental Association (CDA) and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recommend that children visit the dentist by 12 months of age.
To report on how Manitoba"s general dental practitioners and pediatric dentists manage oral health in early childhood.
Mailed surveys that used the modified survey methods of Dillman were sent to 390 Manitoban general dental practitioners and pediatric dentists. The sampling frame was the Manitoba Dental Association"s Membership Registry, but only those dentists who consented to the release of their mailing information were contacted. Survey data were analyzed with Number Cruncher Statistical Software (NCSS 2007). Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple regression analyses were done. A p value of
PubMed ID
19126358 View in PubMed
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Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131297
Source
Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e656-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Debora C Matthews
Martha G S Brillant
Joanne B Clovis
Mary E McNally
Mark J Filiaggi
Robert D Kotzer
Herenia P Lawrence
Author Affiliation
Department of Dental Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. dmatthew@dal.ca
Source
Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e656-66
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dental Care - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Dental Health Surveys - methods
Educational Status
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Forecasting
Health Services Accessibility
Health status
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Needs Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Nova Scotia
Oral Health
Patient Participation - statistics & numerical data
Patient Selection
Physical Examination - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance - methods
Quality of Life
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey.
An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45-64 and =65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted.
The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45-64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits.
Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies.
Notes
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Cites: J Public Health Dent. 1997 Winter;57(1):48-589150063
Cites: J Public Health Dent. 2000 Spring;60(2):72-8110929564
Cites: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Apr;21(2):108-138485969
Cites: BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010;10:2620356408
Cites: J Dent Res. 2007 Oct;86(10):992-617890677
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2006;6:20816911771
Cites: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2006 Aug;34(4):310-916856951
Cites: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Aug;57(2):119-2912062857
PubMed ID
21916953 View in PubMed
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Breast feeding practices as cultural interventions for early childhood caries in Cree communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262047
Source
BMC Oral Health. 2015;15(1):49
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jaime Cidro
Lynelle Zahayko
Herenia P Lawrence
Samantha Folster
Margaret McGregor
Kristen McKay
Source
BMC Oral Health. 2015;15(1):49
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Breastfeeding is a gift from mother to child and has a wide range of positive health, social and cultural impacts on infants. The link between bottle feeding and the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) is well documented. In Aboriginal communities, the higher rates of ECC are linked with low rates of breast feeding and inappropriate infant feeding of high sugar content liquids.
The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is one project that is exploring the use of four interventions (motivational interviewing, anticipatory guidance, fluoride varnish and dental care to expectant mothers) for reducing the prevalence of ECC in infants within Aboriginal communities. This research explored cultural based practices through individual interviews and focus groups with older First Nations women in the community.
Participants in a First Nations community identified cultural based practices that have also been used to promote healthy infant feeding and good oral health. A wide range of themes related to oral health and infant feeding emerged. However, this paper focusses on three themes including: breastfeeding attitudes, social support for mothers and birthing and supporting healthy infant feeding through community programs.
The importance of understanding cultural health traditions is essential for those working in oral public health capacities to ensure there is community acceptance of the interventions.
PubMed ID
25888182 View in PubMed
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Early childhood caries and access to dental care among children of Portuguese-speaking immigrants in the city of Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154318
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2008 Nov;74(9):805
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Renata I Werneck
Herenia P Lawrence
Gajanan V Kulkarni
David Locker
Author Affiliation
Health and Biological Sciences Centre, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2008 Nov;74(9):805
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Angola - ethnology
Azores - ethnology
Bottle Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Brazil - ethnology
Case-Control Studies
Child, Preschool
Communication Barriers
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Dental Health Services - economics - utilization
Diet, Cariogenic
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Insurance, Dental
Language
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Portugal - ethnology
Abstract
To determine the influence of accessibility of dental services and other factors on the development of early childhood caries (ECC) among Toronto children 48 months of age or younger with at least one Portuguese-speaking immigrant parent.
This population-based case-control study involved 52 ECC cases and 52 controls (i.e., without ECC) identified from community centres, churches and drop-in centres by a process of network sampling. Caries status (dmft/s) was assessed by clinical examination. Access to dental care and risk factors for ECC were determined through a structured interview with the Portuguese-speaking parent.
Forty (77%) of the children with ECC but only 28 (54%) of controls had never visited a dentist. Thirty (58%) mothers of children with ECC but only 13 (25%) mothers of controls had not visited a dentist in the previous year. Bivariate analyses revealed that low family income, no family dentist, no dental insurance, breastfeeding, increased frequency of daily snacks and low parental knowledge about harmful child feeding habits were associated with ECC. Non-European-born parents and parents who had immigrated in their 20s or at an older age were 2 to 4 times more likely to have a child with ECC than European parents and those who had immigrated at a younger age. Lack of insurance, no family dentist and frequency of snacks were factors remaining in the final logistic regression model for ECC.
The strongest predictors of ECC in this immigrant population, after adjustment for frequent snack consumption, were lack of dental care and lack of dental insurance. These findings support targeting resources to the prevention of ECC in children of new immigrants, who appear to experience barriers to accessing private dental care and who are exposed to many of the determinants of oral disease.
PubMed ID
19000463 View in PubMed
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Etiology and environment of dental injuries in 12- to 14-year-old Ontario schoolchildren.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157760
Source
Dent Traumatol. 2008 Jun;24(3):305-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin
Herenia P Lawrence
David J Kenny
David Locker
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Dent Traumatol. 2008 Jun;24(3):305-8
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidental Falls - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
DMF Index
Dental Caries - complications - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incisor - injuries
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Tooth Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Trauma Severity Indices
Abstract
This study reports on the etiology and environment where dental injuries occurred and assesses the relationship between dental trauma, socio-economic status and dental caries experience. A population-based, matched case-comparison study was undertaken in 30 schools in two Ontario communities. Dental hygienists calibrated in the use of the Dental Trauma Index (DTI) screened 2422 children aged 12 and 14 years using DTI and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth indices. Cases (n = 135) were children with evidence of dental injury. Controls (n = 135) were children randomly selected after screening and matched with cases according to age and gender. Questionnaires were mailed to parents and children. Prevalence of dental injury was 11.4%, mostly minor injuries 63.7% (enamel fracture not involving dentin), affecting one upper central incisor (70.4%). The mean age at the time of dental injuries was 9.5 years (SD = 1.49; range: 6-13 years). Dental trauma most often occurred among boys at school because of falls or while playing sports. The relationship between dental injuries and the socio-economic indicators chosen was not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant direct relationship (P
PubMed ID
18410389 View in PubMed
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Evaluating the impact of a community developed collaborative project for the prevention of early childhood caries: the Healthy Smile Happy Child project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267488
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2015 Oct-Dec;15(4):3566
Publication Type
Article
Author
Robert J Schroth
Jeanette M Edwards
Douglas J Brothwell
Carol A Yakiwchuk
Mary F Bertone
Bernadette Mellon
Jennifer Ward
Marion Ellis
Khalida Hai-Santiago
Herenia P Lawrence
Michael E Moffatt
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2015 Oct-Dec;15(4):3566
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To determine the effectiveness of the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) project, a community-developed initiative promoting early childhood oral health in Manitoba, Canada. Specific aims were to assess improvements in caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours relating to early childhood oral health, and the burden of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC).
A serial cross-sectional study design was selected to contrast findings following the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) campaign in four communities with the previous baseline data. One community was a remote First Nation in northern Manitoba and another was a rural First Nation in southern Manitoba. The other two communities were urban centres, one of which was located in northern Manitoba. A community-development approach was adopted for the project to foster community solutions to address ECC. Goals of the HSHC program were to promote the project in each community, use existing community-based programs and services to deliver the oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities, and recruit and train natural leaders to assist in program development and to deliver the ECC prevention program. The HSHC coordinator worked with communities to develop a comprehensive list of potential strategies to address ECC. Numerous activities occurred in each community to engage members and increase their knowledge of early childhood oral health and ultimately lead them to adopt preventive oral health practices for their young children. Children under 71 months of age and their primary caregivers participated in this follow-up study. A p-value ≤0.05 was statistically significant.
319 children (mean age 38.2±18.6 months) and their primary caregivers participated. Significant improvements in caregiver knowledge and attitudes were observed following the HSHC campaign, including that baby teeth are important (98.8%), that decay involving primary teeth can impact on health (94.3%), and the importance of a dental visit by the first birthday (82.4%). Significantly more respondents indicated that their child had visited the dentist (50.2%) and had started brushing their child's teeth (86.7%) when compared to baseline. Overall, 52.0% had ECC, 38.6% had S-ECC. The mean deft score was 3.85±4.97 (range 0-20). There was no significant change is ECC prevalence between the follow-up and baseline investigations. However, age-adjusted logistic regression for S-ECC in this follow-up study revealed a significant reduction in prevalence compared with the baseline study (p=0.021). Similarly, age-adjusted Poisson regression revealed that there were significant reductions in both the decayed teeth and decayed, extracted and filled teeth scores between follow-up and baseline study periods (p=0.016 and p
PubMed ID
26530126 View in PubMed
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Exploring school oral health outcomes and neighbourhood factors in schools participating in Ontario's "Healthy Schools" recognition program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135359
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Jan-Feb;102(1):30-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Vanessa E Muirhead
Herenia P Lawrence
Author Affiliation
Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK. v.muirhead@qmul.ac.uk
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Jan-Feb;102(1):30-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Dental Care for Children
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Health promotion
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Mass Screening
Ontario - epidemiology
Oral Health
Poverty Areas
Residence Characteristics
School Health Services
Socioeconomic Factors
Voluntary Programs
Abstract
This ecologic study compared school-level oral health outcomes in schools participating in Ontario's "Healthy Schools" program and nonparticipating schools in York Region, Ontario in 2007-2008 and examined the effect of neighbourhood socio-economic factors.
School-aggregated data were obtained for all 243 elementary schools. York Region Public Health Unit provided oral health data from school dental screenings. We obtained information about schools participating in the Ontario's "Healthy Schools" program from publicly accessible websites. Neighbourhood socio-economic data based on school postcodes were extracted from Statistics Canada (2006) census databases. School oral health outcomes included the percentage of children in each school requiring preventive care, non-urgent dental treatment, urgent dental treatment and children with > or = two decayed teeth.
One hundred and six elementary schools (42%) participated in Ontario's "Healthy Schools" program in 2007-2008. Schools participating in the "Healthy Schools" program had a significantly lower percentage of children with > or = two decayed teeth (p or = two decayed teeth than in low-income non-participating schools (p
PubMed ID
21485963 View in PubMed
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The impact of integration of dental services on oral health in long-term care: qualitative analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139522
Source
Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e77-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Gary I Finkleman
Herenia P Lawrence
Michael Glogauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e77-82
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated
Dental Care
Dental Hygienists
Dentists
Dentures
Health Services Accessibility
Health status
Homes for the Aged - manpower
Humans
Long-Term Care - manpower
Needs Assessment
Ontario
Oral Health
Oral Hygiene
Pain - classification
Patient care team
Professional-Patient Relations
Questionnaires
Toothbrushing - methods
Abstract
To qualitatively analyse how integration of dental service in long-term care (LTC) impacts residents and their oral health.
Few studies have attempted to merge inductive and deductive data to clarify the significance of the complex psychosocial environment in LTC facilities. Understanding the subjective oral health experience of LTC residents in their social setting is key to uncovering behavioural patterns that may be limiting the oral care provided to LTC residents.
A cross-sectional study was performed involving 61 residents in three Ontario LTC facilities. Observations and reflective notes were recorded during open-ended interviews using a structured questionnaire to stimulate conversation topics. This ensured that each resident received the same prompting during the interview process. Inductive analysis was used to identify common patterns and themes within field notes and transcriptions.
The major themes identified included oral hygiene, oral discomfort, general health, appearance, dental access, and denture related issues. Oral hygiene and discomfort were the dominating categories within the facilities.
Two of the three LTC centres identified in this study failed to provide appropriate oral care for their residents. Future research needs to be directed at prospective studies assessing the effect of oral health education and mandatory dental examinations o entry within LTC centres utilising qualitative and quantitative analyses.
PubMed ID
21054509 View in PubMed
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Impact of treated and untreated dental injuries on the quality of life of Ontario school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157759
Source
Dent Traumatol. 2008 Jun;24(3):309-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin
Herenia P Lawrence
David J Kenny
David Locker
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Dent Traumatol. 2008 Jun;24(3):309-13
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Case-Control Studies
Child
Dental Health Surveys
Esthetics, Dental
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Logistic Models
Male
Mastication
Ontario
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Self-Assessment
Sickness Impact Profile
Tooth Injuries - complications - psychology - therapy
Toothache - etiology
Abstract
A population-based, matched case-comparison study was undertaken in 30 schools in two Ontario communities to measure the impact of dental trauma on quality of life (QoL) in Canadian school children. Dental hygienists screened 2422 children aged 12-14 years using the dental trauma index, the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) and the aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment needs (AC-IOTN). Cases (n = 135) were children with evidence of previous dental trauma. Controls (n = 135) were classmates matched for age and gender. Oral-health-related QoL was assessed using mailed Child Perception Questionnaires (CPQ(11-14)) completed by all children. Data were analyzed using simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions after adjusting for DMFT and AC-IOTN, CPQ(11-14), overall impact and item-specific impacts. Approximately 64% of injuries were untreated enamel fractures and just over 30% were previously injured restored teeth. Untreated children experienced more chewing difficulties (P = 0.026), avoided smiling (P = 0.029) and experienced affected social interactions (P = 0.032) compared with their non-injured peers. When treated and non-injured groups were compared, the only statistically significant effect was difficulty in chewing (P = 0.038). Injured children who were untreated experienced more social impact than their non-injured peers. Restoration of injured teeth improved aesthetics and social interactions but functional deficiencies persisted as a result of periodontal or pulpal pain.
PubMed ID
18410390 View in PubMed
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25 records – page 1 of 3.