BACKGROUNDS. A focus on psychiatric rehabilitation in order to support recovery among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) has been given great attention in research and mental health policy, but less impact on clinical practice. Despite the potential impact of psychiatric rehabilitation on health and wellbeing, there is a lack of research regarding the model called the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach from Boston University (BPR).
The aim was to investigate the outcome of the BPR intervention regarding changes in life situation, use of healthcare services, quality of life, health, psychosocial functioning and empowerment.
The study has a prospective longitudinal design and the setting was seven mental health services who worked with the BPR in the county of Halland in Sweden. In total, 71 clients completed the assessment at baseline and of these 49 completed the 2-year follow-up assessments.
The most significant finding was an improved psychosocial functioning at the follow-up assessment. Furthermore, 65% of the clients reported that they had mainly or almost completely achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals at the 2-year follow-up. There were significant differences with regard to health, empowerment, quality of life and psychosocial functioning for those who reported that they had mainly/completely had achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals compared to those who reported that they only had to a small extent or not at all reached their goals.
Our results indicate that the BPR approach has impact on clients' health, empowerment, quality of life and in particular concerning psychosocial functioning.
BACKGROUND: In mental health services, the concept of health is often perceived, from a biomedical perspective, as the absence of disease, involving several negative consequences together with a lack of systematic health-promoting activities. The subjective experiences of health among patients in mental health services are crucial to reinforce the experience of health throughout different phases of life. Positive dimensions of health include interaction between the individual and the environment, subjective experience of individual power as well as possibilities to influence important aspects of the life situation. The aim of the study was to describe and compare attitudes to health among patients and staff in mental health services in terms of the importance of health as measured by the attitude version of the Health Questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients in contact with the mental health services and 140 mental health staff was performed. RESULTS: Patients and staff share most attitudes towards health, which indicates that health is a concept that applies to human beings irrespective of mental disease in the context of mental health services. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility to be able to define, measure, and compare positive dimensions of health may be important in the attempts to divert the focus towards one that promotes health and resources in mental health services and away from one on illness and deficits.
The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients' experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients' experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in "A sense of being in communion with self and others" theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients' ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.
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Positive dimensions of mental health are strong protective factors against physical and mental illness in general population. A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients was performed to explore differences in patients' self-reported importance of elements of health and subjective experiences of health related to sociodemographic background variables. The examination of differences in self-reported importance of elements of health showed differences regarding gender, and the analyses of subjectively experienced health showed differences regarding age and diagnosis. Clinical interventions aiming at strengthening positive dimensions of health are required in community mental health services to meet the patients' individual needs of enhanced health.
The mental health-care system in Sweden, as in many other counties, has its main focus on the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and the prevention of relapses. People diagnosed with schizophrenia often have significant health issues and experience reduced well-being in everyday life. The social imaginary of mental illness as an imbalance of the brain has implications concerning general attitudes in society. The news media are an important source of information on psychiatric disorders and have an important role in cultivating public perceptions and stigma. News media can contribute to the mental illness stigma and place individuals with mental illnesses at risk of not receiving adequate care and support. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe users' experiences of housing support in everyday life.
The results revealed three themes of housing support, which were needed, but frequently insufficiently fulfilled in the municipality. The three themes were: "Support to Practice Healthy Routines in Daily Life," "Support to Shape Meaningful Contents in Everyday Life," and "Support to Meet Needs of Integrity and Respect."
The findings support previous studies arguing that current health care and housing support fails to meet basic needs and may lead to significant and unnecessary health risks. Further investigation is needed regarding the links between attitudes to mental illness in society and political and financial principles for health care and housing support for persons with schizophrenia. Further research is needed regarding the role of the media in policymaking concerning health promotion interventions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia.
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Studies investigating mental health professionals' attitudes towards people with mental illness are scarce and there is a lack of comparative studies including both patients' and mental health professionals' attitudes. The aim of the present study was to investigate mental health staff's attitudes towards people with mental illness and compare these with the attitudes of patients in contact with mental health services. A further aim was to relate staff attitudes to demographic and work characteristics.
A cross-sectional study was performed including 140 staff and 141 patients. The study included a random sample of outpatients in contact with mental health services in the southern part of Sweden and staff working in these services. Attitudes were investigated using a questionnaire covering beliefs of devaluation and discrimination of people with a mental illness.
Negative attitudes were prevalent among staff. Most negative attitudes concerned whether an employer would accept an application for work, willingness to date a person who had been hospitalized, and hiring a patient to take care of children. Staff treating patients with a psychosis or working in inpatient settings had the most negative attitudes. Patient attitudes were overall similar to staff attitudes and there were significant differences in only three out of 12 dimensions. Patients' most negative attitudes were in the same area as the staff's.
This study points to the suggestion that mental health care staff may hold negative attitudes and beliefs about people with mental illness with tentative implications for treatment of the patient and development and implementation of evidence-based services. Since patients and staff in most respects share these beliefs, it is essential to develop interventions that have an impact on both patients and staff, enabling a more recovery-oriented staff-patient relationship.
Comment In: Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;59(5):52023887823
Comment In: Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;59(5):52223887825
Health has been a central concept in nursing science since the 18th century but the holistic concept of health that includes both the body and the soul, still has to be clarified. The concept of health is often unclear and represents an unreachable ideal state that can be hard to use as a realistic goal in nursing care. The aim of this study was to describe how the patient perceives the concept of health in mental health nursing. Twelve patients with experience of mental health nursing were interviewed and the data were analyzed with a phenomenographic approach. The patients described nine different perceptions that were divided into three descriptive categories: autonomy, meaningfulness, and community. All of these are important to achieve health. There is ambiguity about the possibility to influence the concept of health. Health is described, on the one, hand as a prerequisite to experiencing freedom and finding meaning in life and, on the other hand, it is believed that the search for meaning and the courage to fight and try in spite of the disease is what leads to health. The patients' descriptions are mostly about things that they need in the present time to achieve health, but health as a process with growth and potential for development does not appear that clearly. One conclusion is that mental health nursing must deliver a more process-focused nursing care where the concept of health is visibly used as a goal for all nursing interventions.
Department of Research, Development and Education (FoUU), Region of Halland, Halmstad, Sweden; School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; email@example.com.
Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while society's response seems to be a trend toward narrower and more specialized mental health care. This development is creating great demands on mental health nurses to include a health promotion perspective in care and support of persons with mental illness. A health promotion perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with people who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life, with an inherent ability to make his/her own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in a position to support these individuals in promoting health and in maintaining or regaining control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is to problematize mental health nurses' responsibility to provide health-promoting nursing care in relation to empowerment by means of emancipation, self-efficacy, and self-management. We argue that mental health nurses can work from a health-promoting perspective by using these concepts and that this challenges some of the traditional ideas of health promotion in mental health nursing. The theoretical background discussions in this paper have their origin in the research network "Mental Health Nursing Research in Scandinavia" (MeHNuRse) and from the professional discussions developed during a 2012 workshop that included mental health nurses and researchers at the European Horatio Festival in Stockholm.
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The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives' experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives' experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme "To meet the clients' needs" consisting of three categories: "Dependence on staffs' competence," "Responsibility for user involvement," and "The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers." The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients' needs related to outcome of care. Relatives' perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives' role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.
News reporting about mental illness lack perspectives of the mentally ill themselves and it is almost exclusively psychiatrists who are accessed when healthcare staff is consulted. The perspective of mental health nurses might contribute to the public understanding of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to describe mental health nurses' experiences of how mental illness is portrayed in media. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with qualified mental health nurses. A qualitative content analysis resulted in three categories: Negative portrayals of mental illness, Inconclusive images of mental illness and Biased dissemination of different perspectives. The conclusion of this study is that mental health nurses experience media portrayals of mental illness as negative and misleading with too much emphasis on the medical perspective while a holistic mental health nursing perspective is heavily obscured. Mental health nurses need to take a more prominent role in public reporting on mental health to resolve the current lack of relevant facts regarding mental illness. Further research is needed regarding portrayals of mental illness in social media and how the current lack of perspectives affects public perceptions of mental illness. In addition, further studies regarding the viewpoints of journalists reporting on mental illness are required.