This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
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To study fluctuations in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in relation to contrast medium (CM) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) compared to control groups in outpatients.
eGFR was determined right before the imaging procedure and three days later at the department or at the patient's home. The iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast media were the same as used for all other examinations at the department.
A total of 716 patients completed the study. There was a statistically significant, but not clinically relevant rise in eGFR after three days in all four groups. The average eGFR variation was 4.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2). There were large variations in eGFR between the two measurements in 45.8% of the patients as they had a change greater than ± 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Only three patients fulfilled the contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) requirement when the definition s-creatinine = 44 µmol/l (0.5mg/dl) was used.
eGFR in outpatients undergoing MRI or CT did vary independently of whether the patient received contrast or not. The findings probably reflect the natural variations in s-creatinine levels. This should be taken into consideration when CIN is studied.
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease affecting renal failure patients. It may be caused by some gadolinium (Gd)-containing contrast agents, including gadodiamide. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of NSF after gadodiamide exposure for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Retrospective cohort study of 190 consecutive nephrological patients in different categories of kidney function referred for gadodiamide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the period January 1, 2004 to March 21, 2006.
Eighteen patients (18/190; 10%, 95% CI: 6%-15%) were diagnosed with NSF within a mean follow-up period of 29 months (range 16-43 months). All 18 cases had stage 5 CKD (ie, estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 or in dialysis therapy) at the time of their gadodiamide exposure. The prevalence of NSF among patients with stage 5 CKD at exposure (n = 102) was 18% (95% CI: 11%-27%). No cases were seen among 88 gadodiamide-exposed patients who had milder degrees of renal insufficiency (prevalence 0%, 95% CI: 0%-4%).
The risk of NSF is unacceptably high among stage 5 CKD patients exposed to gadodiamide.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiographers are able to evaluate MRI examinations with regard to scaphoid fractures to save patients unnecessary immobilization and clinical and radiographic examinations, and to reduce the costs for the hospital as well as society in general. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 1-year period 224 consecutive patients with a suspected clinical scaphoid fracture but negative radiography were referred for MRI and examined within 11 hours. The MR images were primarily evaluated by the MRI radiographer on duty. Other fractures and bone edema were not reported because these were not part of the work-up protocol agreed upon by the radiology and the orthopedic departments. The following weekday a final report was provided by a radiologist. For the economical analysis the official price-list for Danish hospital service was used. RESULTS: The MRI radiographers reported 43 scaphoid fractures, whereas the radiologist ultimately diagnosed only 36 scaphoid fractures (16.1% of patients) (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 96.3%). Six of the seven false-positive fractures occurred in patients with edema of the scaphoid. The seventh false-positive was a fracture of the capitate. The hospital saved at least 20,000 and the social care system 70.000. CONCLUSION: It is possible to provide an acute MRI service to patients with clinically suspected fracture of the scaphoid and a normal plain radiograph. The MR images can be primarily read by sufficiently trained MR radiographers. This new work-up protocol reduces the cost for society.
The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents.
The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. (1)H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T(2) relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T(2) relaxation effects were calculated.
T(2) values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T(2) values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T(2) relaxation times of fat and T(2) relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r=0.038, P=0.79); (2) between T(2) relaxation times of fat and fat content (r=0.057, P=0.69); (3) between T(2) relaxation times of water and fat content (r=0.160, P=0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T(2) corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r=0.97 for TE=45, r=0.93 for TE=75, r=0.89 for TE=105, P
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a debilitating and painful disorder with an increased stimulation of the connective tissue in the skin and systemic tissues. The disease is associated with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging in patients with renal impairment.
The prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has so far never been determined at a national level. In 2009, Denmark was the first country to design a guideline for the tracing of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis patients. The aim of this paper is to communicate the main findings of this quest.
The outcome of the nationwide investigation revealed that Denmark had 65 patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and thereby the highest prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis worldwide with 65 per 5.6 million inhabitants, or 12 per million.
The nationwide investigation in Denmark revealed the highest prevalence of NSF worldwide. This may be rooted in a high level of awareness of NSF both among doctors, politicians and, not least, the media, combined with the fact that a nationwide NSF investigation was initiated.
Plain magnetic resonance imaging as an alternative in evaluating inflammation and bowel damage in inflammatory bowel disease--a prospective comparison with conventional magnetic resonance follow-through.
To compare prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without use of contrast medium orally or intravenously (plain MRI) with magnetic resonance follow-through (MRFT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Plain MRI was carried out in addition to MRFT, to which the patients were referred. All patients underwent both examinations on the same day. For the evaluation, the bowel was divided into nine segments. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical findings, evaluated bowel wall thickness, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and other inflammatory changes in each bowel segments. Further, hyperenhancement of the bowel was also evaluated in MRFT.
A total of 100 patients (40 males and 60 females; median age: 38.5; range: 19-90) were enrolled; 44 with Crohn's disease (CD), 25 with ulcerative colitis (UC), 24 with IBD unclassified (IBD-U), and 7 had other diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in CD ranged 50-86%, 93-94%, and 91-92% for wall thickening and 49-82%, 85-93%, and 84-89% for DWI, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in UC range 0-40%, 87-100%, and 80-100% for wall thickening and 0-52%, 83-94% and 76-92% for DWI, respectively. The ? values for bowel wall thickening, DWI, and mural hyperenhancement were detected with fair agreement (? = 0.26-0.39) at both MRI examinations, whereas only bowel wall thickening in MRFT were detected with moderate agreement (? = 0.47) Conclusion. Plain MRI cannot currently replace MRFT in the workup of patients with IBD. Further research on plain MRI is needed to improve the protocol.