As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=
The association between medical diagnosis and caregiver burden: a cross-sectional study of recipients of informal support and caregivers from the general population study 'Good Aging in Skåne', Sweden.
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Build. 28 Fl.13, 205 02, Malmo, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Different kinds of chronic diseases might imply different dimensions of caregiver burden, not previously described among the caregivers to recipients from the general elder population.
The main objective was to examine differences in burden between the 343 caregivers to persons with different diagnoses.
A group of elderly recipients of informal care (n?=?343) from the general population study 'Good Aging in Skåne' (GÅS) Sweden, were divided into five diagnostic groups: dementia (n?=?90), heart and lung diseases (n?=?48), stroke (n?=?62), fractures (n?=?66), depression (n?=?40) and the group "other", consisting of different diagnoses (n?=?37) according to ICD-10. Differences in burden were analyzed using the Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS), a 22-item scale consisting of five dimensions: general strain, isolation, disappointment, emotional involvement and environmental burden. A total burden index comprises the mean of all the 22 items and a higher score indicates a higher burden.
The most common diagnosis associated to caregiving was dementia and fracture and the median hours weekly for informal support with instrumental ADL for the five diagnostic groups ranged from 7 to 45 h for spouses and from 4 to 7 h for parents. The highest proportion of caregivers scoring high total burden was seen among recipients with dementia (50%) and depression (38%); the OR for high total burden for the dementia group was 4.26 (2.29-7.92) and depression group 2.38 (1.08-5.24) adjusted for covariates like age, gender and ADL and these two groups had higher self-perception of burden in all the dimensions, especially the dimension's emotional burden and strain.
Informal support constitutes a substantial time for instrumental ADL for the diseased elders. Caregivers to persons with dementia and depression experience high burden.
Cites: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Feb;77(2):177-82 PMID 8607743
Cites: Scand J Prim Health Care Suppl. 1990;1:33-8 PMID 2100362
To describe change in functional ability in the oldest-old population during 3 years and examine its relation to life satisfaction (LS). A total of 681 individuals aged 78 and older from the population-based study Good Aging in Skåne took part.
Functional ability was assessed using Sonn and Åsberg's Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and related to LS assessed by Neugarten et al's Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A).
Fifty-one percent of 87-93-year-olds reported ADL decline during 3 years. Individuals reporting impaired ADL had a mean LSI-A value of 23.0 compared to 26.4 in those unchanged. ADL decline had a stronger negative effect on LS in the younger group (78-84 years), r = 0.207, P
Cites: Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2000;50(4):319-2811087110
This population-based cross-sectional study describes social participation expressed as the accomplishment of social, cultural, and leisure activities resulting from informal support given by relatives or friends, formal support given by the municipality or county, or a combination of the two, among 452 individuals aged 60-93 years suffering from osteoporosis-related fractures. A fourth group of individuals with fractures without any support was used as a reference group. Fractures included were humeral, wrist, vertebral, hip, pelvic and ankle fractures. Questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic data and information on social participation, social support, and covariates. The results showed that a smaller proportion of those with only formal support took part in social, cultural, or leisure activities, compared to participants with informal support alone, both informal and formal support or those without any kind of support. The associations between categories of activity and kind of support were further tested in a logistic regression model adjusting for possible confounders. Odds ratios (ORs) for taking part in social, cultural, and leisure activities were significantly lower for participants with formal support and a combination of informal and formal support, while participants receiving informal support did not show a significantly reduced OR for taking part in any category of activity, compared to the reference group. In conclusion; informal support of older people with fractures is an important means of facilitating social participation and an active lifestyle. Attention should be paid to the vulnerable situation of those who rely solely on formal support.
To investigate the relationships between physical performance, quality of life (QoL), and social participation among elderly men and women with a history of osteoporosis-related fractures.
The study was a population-based cross-sectional study including 155 participants aged 60 to 93 years from the Swedish longitudinal investigation, "Good Aging in Skåne." The participants had suffered fracture of the vertebrae, hip, pelvis, or ankle. Physical performance was expressed as walking speed (WS) and timed get-up-and-go (TUG). QoL was measured as using the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Life Satisfaction (LS) scales. Social participation was defined as taking part in social, cultural, and leisure activities.
Lower WS and/or TUG were associated with lower HRQoL, lower LS, and a reduction in social participation, after adjustment for confounding factors.
Measurements of WS and TUG could be used to determine QoL and social participation in elderly people having sustained fractures.
Accidental falls in the elderly are a major health problem, despite extensive research on risk factors and prevention. Only a limited number of multifactorial, long-term prospective studies have been performed on risk factors for falls in the general elderly population. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors predicting falls in a general elderly population after three and six years, using a prospective design.
The prevalence of 38 risk factors was recorded at a baseline assessment of 1763 subjects (aged 60-93 years). The incidence of one or more falls was recorded after three and six years. The predicted risk of falling, after exposure to the various risk factors, was analysed in a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for age and sex, and presented as odds ratios (OR). A principal component analysis (PCA), including the statistical significant factors, was also performed to identify thematic, uncorrelated components associated with falls.
The use of neuroleptics (OR 3.30, 95% CI: 1.15-9.43), heart failure with symptoms (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.17-3.04) and low walking speed (OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.28-2.46) were prominent individual risk factors for falls. In the PCA, three main components predicting falls were identified: reduced mobility, OR 2.12 (95% CI 1.54-2.91), heart dysfunction, OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.26-2.20) and functional impairment including nocturia, OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.01-1.88).
Three main components predicting falls were identified in a general elderly population after three and six years: reduced mobility, heart dysfunction and functional impairment including nocturia. The use of neuroleptic drugs was also a prominent individual risk factor, although the prevalence was low. Heart failure with symptoms was a significant risk factor for falls and may be of clinical importance as the prevalence of this condition in the elderly is increasing worldwide. There is need for further research on the relation between heart failure and falls in the elderly, as the treatment for this condition is poorly documented in this demographic. The findings of this study may be valuable in the development of intervention programmes aimed at sustainable, long-term reduction of falls in the elderly.
At present a majority of older people remain in their ordinary homes. Research has generated knowledge about home and health dynamics and increased the awareness of the complexity of housing as related to ageing. As this knowledge is based mainly on research on very old, single-living people in ordinary housing there is a need to study other sub-groups of the ageing population. Thus, the aim of the present descriptive study was to compare a younger old cohort with a very old cohort living in ordinary housing in Sweden in order to shed new light on home and health dynamics in different sub-groups of the ageing population.
Cross-sectional study of two population-based cohorts: one aged 67-70 years (n = 371) and one aged 79-89 years (n = 397) drawn from existing Swedish databases. Structured interviews and observations were conducted to collect data about socio-demographics, aspects of home, and symptoms. Besides descriptive statistics we computed tests of differences using the Chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U-test.
Accessibility was significantly lower in the very old cohort compared to the younger old cohort even though the former were objectively assessed to have fewer environmental barriers. Those in the very old cohort perceived aspects of their housing situation as worse and were more dependent on external influences managing their housing situation. Although a larger proportion of the very old cohort had more functional limitations 22% were independent in ADL. In the younger old cohort 17% were dependent in ADL.
Keeping in mind that there were cohort differences beyond that of age, despite fewer environmental barriers in their dwellings the very old community-living cohort lived in housing with more accessibility problems compared to those of the younger old cohort, caused by their higher prevalence of functional limitations. Those in the very old cohort perceived themselves in a less favourable situation, but still as satisfied with housing as those in the younger old cohort. This kind of knowledge is indicative for prevention and intervention in health care and social services as well as for housing provision and societal planning. Further studies based on truly comparable cohorts are warranted.
Cites: Can J Occup Ther. 1999 Dec;66(5):250-6010641377
The understanding of the complex relationship between the home environment, well-being and daily functioning in the third age is currently weak. The aim of this paper is to present the methodological background of the Home and Health in the Third Age Study, and describe a sample of men and women in relation to their home and health situation.
The study sample included 371 people aged 67-70, living in ordinary housing in the south of Sweden. Structured interviews and observations were conducted to collect data about objective and perceived aspects of home and health.
The majority of the participants were in good health and had few functional limitations. Women had more functional limitations and reported more symptoms than men. Environmental barriers were found in every home investigated; the most were found in the kitchen and hygiene area. Environmental barriers were more common in multi-family than in one-family dwellings.
This study will increase our knowledge on home and health dynamics among people in the third age. The results have potential to contribute to societal planning related to housing provision, home care and social services for senior citizens.
The importance of the home environment increases with age. Perceived aspects of home influence life satisfaction, perceived health, independence in daily activities and well-being among very old people. However, research on health and perceived aspects of home among senior citizens in earlier phases of the aging process is lacking. Therefore, the main aim was to explore whether perceived aspects of home are related to number of and specific domains of symptoms in a cohort of people aged 67-70. Interview and observation data on aspects of home and health, collected with 371 individuals living in ordinary housing in urban as well as rural areas in southern Sweden, were used. Descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple linear and logistic regression models were employed. The results showed that the median number of symptoms was 6.0. Reporting fewer reported symptoms was associated with a higher meaning of home (p=0.003) and lower external housing related control beliefs (p=0.001) but not with usability in the home. High external control beliefs were significantly associated with symptoms from head (p=0.014), gastrointestinal (p=0.014) and tension symptoms (p=0.001). Low meaning of home was significantly associated with heart-lung symptoms (p=0.007), and low usability was associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.003). In conclusion, showing that perceived aspects of home are important for health in terms of physical and mental symptoms, this study contributes to the knowledge on the complex interplay of health and home in the third age.
The aim of this study was to describe social participation expressed as accomplished ordinary activities, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS), among elderly men and women with osteoporosis-related fractures with and without pain, compared to non-fractured controls. The study was a population-based case-control study conducted at a university hospital, including 408 subjects from the Good Ageing in Skåne investigation. Fractured men and women of age 60-93 years were divided into two groups: one with pain (FP; n=87) and one without pain (FnP; n=82). Fractures included vertebrae, hip, pelvis or ankle according to International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10). A third group of non-fractured subjects without pain (n=239) was used as controls (CnP). Questionnaires were used to collect information about HRQoL, LS, social participation in ordinary activities such as social, cultural and leisure time activities, pain during past month, co-morbidity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, medication, exercise earlier in life, walking-aid, and socio-demographic variables. The results showed that FP scored significantly lower than CnP in HRQoL and LS. In general, fractured were more restricted in participation and in 12 out of 21 activities FP had a significant lower participation compared to CnP. In a regression model, participation in social and leisure activities as well as fracture predicted independently levels of HRQoL and LS.