This study investigates dietary exposure and serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a group of Norwegians (n = 184) with a wide range of seafood consumption (4-455 g/day). Mean dietary exposure to Sum 5 PBDEs (1.5 ng/kg body weight/day) is among the highest reported. Since concentrations in foods were similar to those found elsewhere in Europe, this may be explained by high seafood consumption among Norwegians. Oily fish was the main dietary contributor both to Sum PBDEs and to the considerably lower HBCD intake (0.3 ng/kg body weight/day). Milk products appeared to contribute most to the BDE-209 intake (1.4 ng/kg body weight/day). BDE-209 and HBCD exposures are based on few food samples and need to be confirmed. Serum levels (mean Sum 7 PBDEs = 5.2 ng/g lipid) and congener patterns (BDE-47 > BDE-153 > BDE-99) were comparable with other European reports. Correlations between individual congeners were higher for the calculated dietary exposure than for serum levels. Further, significant but weak correlations were found between dietary exposure and serum levels for Sum PBDEs, BDE-47, and BDE-28 in males. This indicates that other sources in addition to diet need to be addressed.
Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.
Fish liver, fish liver oil, oily fish and seagull eggs have been major sources of vitamin D for the coastal population of Norway. They also provide dioxin and polychlorinated dioxin-like compounds (dl-compounds), which may interfere with vitamin D homeostasis. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) might be compromised by concomitant intake of dl-compounds.
We studied 182 adults participating in the Norwegian Fish and Game Study. Participants who consumed fish liver and/or seagull eggs had higher dl-compound intake and blood concentrations than non-consumers (p
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI.
Inadequate stores or intakes of essential minerals in pregnancy, or too high exposure to both toxic and essential elements, can have adverse effects on mother and child. The main aims of this study were to 1) describe the concentrations and patterns of essential and toxic elements measured in maternal whole blood during pregnancy; 2) identify dietary, lifestyle and sociodemographic determinants of element status; and 3) explore the impact of iron deficiency on blood element concentrations.
This study is based on blood samples collected from 2982 women in gestational week 18 in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) which were analyzed as part of the Norwegian Environmental Biobank. We derived blood element patterns by exploratory factor analysis, and associations between blood element patterns and diet were explored using sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression.
Blood concentrations were determined for the essential elements (in the order of most abundant) Zn?>?Cu?>?Se?>?Mn?>?Mo?>?Co, and the toxic metals Pb?>?As?>?Hg?>?Cd?>?Tl. The concentrations were in ranges that were similar to or sometimes more favorable than in other pregnant and non-pregnant European women. We identified two blood element patterns; one including Zn, Se and Mn and another including Hg and As. For the Zn-Se-Mn pattern, use of multimineral supplements was the most important dietary determinant, while a high score in the Hg-As pattern was mainly determined by seafood consumption. Concentrations of Mn, Cd and Co were significantly higher in women with iron deficiency (plasma ferritin?
To examine the association between calculated maternal dietary exposure to Hg in pregnancy and infant birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Exposure was calculated with use of a constructed database of Hg in food items and reported dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable regression models were used to explore the association between maternal Hg exposure and infant birth weight, and to model associations with small-for-gestational-age offspring.
The study is based on data from MoBa.
The study sample consisted of 62 941 women who answered a validated FFQ which covered the habitual diet during the first five months of pregnancy.
Median exposure to Hg was 0·15 µg/kg body weight per week and the contribution from seafood intake was 88 % of total Hg exposure. Women in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile of Hg exposure delivered offspring with 34 g lower birth weight (95 % CI -46 g, -22 g) and had an increased risk of giving birth to small-for-gestational-age offspring, adjusted OR = 1·19 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·30). Although seafood intake was positively associated with increased birth weight, stratified analyses showed negative associations between Hg exposure and birth weight within strata of seafood intake.
Although seafood intake in pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, Hg exposure is negatively associated with birth weight. Seafood consumption during pregnancy should not be avoided, but clarification is needed to identify at what level of Hg exposure this risk might exceed the benefits of seafood.
Dietary patterns were related to intake and blood concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and selected non-dioxin-like-PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Intake calculations were based on an extensive food frequency questionnaire and a congener-specific database on concentrations in Norwegian foods. The study (2003) applied a two-step inclusion strategy recruiting representative (n=73) and high consumers (n=111) of seafood and game. Estimated median intakes of sum PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs of the representative and high consumers were 0.78 and 1.25 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg bw/day, respectively. Estimated median intakes of ndl-PCBs (sum chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) were 4.26 and 6.40 ng/kg bw/day. The median blood concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs/dl-PCBs were 28.7 and 35.1 pg TEQ/g lipid, and ndl-PCBs (sum of CB-101, 138, 153 and 180) 252 and 299 ng/g lipid. The Spearman correlations between dietary intake and serum concentration were r=0.34 (p=0.017) for dl-compounds and r=0.37 (p