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Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273849
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Nanna Margrethe Bruun Bremnes
Sharon Lynn Broadwell
Berit Granum
Manolis Kogevinas
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Demography
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Life Style
Norway
Pesticides - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
PubMed ID
26749444 View in PubMed
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Maternal seafood consumption and infant birth weight, length and head circumference in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101448
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-18-2011
Author
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Jan Alexander
Per Magnus
Margareta Haugen
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Date
Jul-18-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Results from previous studies on associations between maternal fish and seafood intakes and fetal growth are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate how maternal intakes of seafood, subtypes of seafood and supplementary n-3 fatty acids were associated with infant birth weight, length and head circumference in a prospective study in Norway. The study population included 62 099 participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The mothers answered an FFQ in mid pregnancy. The FFQ comprised detailed questions about intake of various seafood items and n-3 supplements. Data on infant birth weight, length and head circumference were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry. We used multivariable regression to examine how total seafood, various seafood subtypes and supplementary n-3 intakes were associated with birth size measures. Total seafood intake was positively associated with birth weight and head circumference. Lean fish was positively associated with all birth size measures; shellfish was positively associated with birth weight, while fatty fish was not associated with any birth size measures. Intake of supplementary n-3 was negatively associated with head circumference. The relative risk of giving birth to a small baby ( 60 g/d of seafood than in women who consumed = 5 g/d (OR = 0·56 (95 % CI 0·35, 0·88). In conclusion, maternal seafood consumption was positively associated with birth size, driven by lean fish intake, while supplementary n-3 intake was negatively associated with infant head circumference.
PubMed ID
21767447 View in PubMed
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Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins is associated with increased risk of wheeze and infections in infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134515
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug;49(8):1843-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Solvor Berntsen Stølevik
Unni Cecilie Nygaard
Ellen Namork
Margaretha Haugen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Joost H M van Delft
Henk van Loveren
Martinus Løvik
Berit Granum
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. solvor.berntsen@fhi.no
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug;49(8):1843-8
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acrylamide - toxicity
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dioxins - toxicity
Eating
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Humans
Infant
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - physiopathology
Respiratory Tract Infections - chemically induced
Risk factors
Abstract
The birth cohort BraMat (n = 205; a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health) was established to study whether prenatal exposure to toxicants from the maternal diet affects immunological health outcomes in children. We here report on the environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, as well as acrylamide generated in food during heat treatment. The frequency of common infections, eczema or itchiness, and periods of more than 10 days of dry cough, chest tightness or wheeze (called wheeze) in the children during the first year of life was assessed by questionnaire data (n = 195). Prenatal dietary exposure to the toxicants was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from MoBa. Prenatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with increased risk of wheeze and exanthema subitum, and also with increased frequency of upper respiratory tract infections. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and the health outcomes investigated. Our results suggest that prenatal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs may increase the risk of wheeze and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
PubMed ID
21571030 View in PubMed
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Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283314
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Jul-Aug;92-93:63-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kristine Vejrup
Synnve Schjølberg
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Per Magnus
Margaretha Haugen
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Jul-Aug;92-93:63-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Diet
Dioxins - analysis - toxicity
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Female
Fishes
Food contamination - analysis
Gestational Age
Humans
Language Development Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Methylmercury Compounds - analysis - toxicity
Norway - epidemiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Prospective Studies
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3µg/day, corresponding to 0.14µg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6µg/day, >0.29µg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.
PubMed ID
27058928 View in PubMed
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