Peripheral arterial disease and vascular calcifications contribute significantly to the outcome of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of severity of abdominal aortic calcifications and peripheral arterial disease on outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using methods easily available in everyday clinical practice.
We enrolled 249 PD patients (mean age 61 years, 67% male) in this prospective, observational, multicenter study from 2009 to 2013. The abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) was assessed using lateral lumbar X ray, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) using a Doppler device.
The median AACS was 11 (range 0 - 24). In 58% of the patients, all 4 segments of the abdominal aorta showed deposits, while 19% of patients had no visible deposits (AACS 0). Ankle-brachial index was normal in 49%, low ( 1.3) in 34% of patients. Altogether 91 patients (37%) died during the median follow-up of 46 months. Only 2 patients (5%) with AACS 0 died compared with 50% of the patients with AACS = 7 (p
Allergy Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Centre for Child Health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN) is a kidney disease with variable prognosis. Several known risk factors exist for a more progressive course. Some population studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption might protect kidney function, but the relationship between alcohol intake and IgAGN has not previously been examined.
We examined 158 (95 men) IgAGN patients (37 abstainers, 80 light drinkers, 25 moderate drinkers and 16 heavy drinkers) in a cross-sectional study. The definition of alcohol consumption was based on interviews on the amounts of alcohol intake combined with measurements of serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, a specific biomarker of alcohol abuse. Longitudinal data on renal function were available from 117 patients (76 men) in whom an analysis with respect to progression was also performed.
Moderate drinkers showed the best kidney function. When adjusted by hypertension and 24-hour protein excretion, moderate alcohol consumption in a cross-sectional multivariate analysis, and both light and moderate alcohol consumption in a longitudinal multivariate analysis were significant factors of better kidney function. When the study population was divided by gender, the best kidney function was among light drinkers in women and among moderate drinkers in men.
Moderate alcohol consumption might have a favorable impact on the progression of IgAGN. Light alcohol consumption in women and moderate consumption in men are associated with improved indices of the glomerular filtration estimates in patients with IgAGN.
Alexithymia is thought to reflect a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotion, and, therefore, it may predispose individuals to both psychological and somatic symptoms.
The authors investigated the relationship between alexithymia and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a nationally representative population sample of 5,418 subjects, age 30 to 97 years.
Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and HRQoL measured with the 15D, a generic HRQoL measure.
Alexithymia was significantly associated with lower HRQoL independently of other variables. The TAS-20 subfactor Difficulties Identifying Feelings was the strongest common denominator between alexithymia and HRQoL.
Alexithymia may be a predisposing factor to poorer HRQoL.
Fighter pilots who are frequently exposed to severe cold ambient temperatures experience neck pain disabilities and occupational disorders more often than those who are not so exposed. We hypothesized that a cold-induced increase in muscle strain might lead to in-flight neck injuries. The aims of this study were to measure the level of cooling before takeoff and to determine muscle strain under Gz loading (0 to +4 Gz) at different temperatures.
Test subjects' (n = 14) skin temperature (T(skin)) over the trapezoids was measured before the walk to the aircraft and again in the cockpit (air temperature -14 degrees C). The subjects then performed trampoline exercises in two different ambient temperatures (-2 degrees C and +21 degrees C) after a 30-min period at the respective temperatures. EMG activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles, and Tskin of the SCM and TRA were measured.
Tskin over the trapezoids decreased from 30.1 +/- 1.7 degrees C to 27.8 +/- 2.6 degrees C (p
The aim of the study was to determine the alterations in the occurrence of incontinence and how subjects suffering from incontinence seek and receive healthcare services over a 10-year follow-up period.
Postal questionnaires (Wexner Incontinence Score, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, a questionnaire to investigate the management of fecal incontinence and the frequency of urinary incontinence) were sent to subjects who had reported anal incontinence in our population-based study in 2003. For each incontinent person (n = 155) from the 2003 series, we identified two control subjects (n = 310) who did not suffer from incontinence.
Of the initially incontinent, 47 (58%) had remained incontinent after a follow up of 10 years. Almost 80% of the incontinent subjects in 2012 were female. Of the 152 initially continent, 12 (7.9%) had developed symptoms, all of whom were females. Urinary incontinence was present in approximately 60% of incontinent subjects. The majority (57.8%) of the subjects still incontinent in 2012 felt that they needed help for the complaint, but only 30.9% had received any, and only 7.4% received any benefit. The most common treatment was medication. The subjective incontinence impaired the quality of life.
Incontinence is a chronic long-lasting disorder. The current management of anal incontinence is not satisfactory. The primary healthcare system should be more aware of the nature of this condition to find and offer treatment for the patients.
To identify risk factors in recurrence and to evaluate anatomic and functional results of vaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation and pelvic floor reconstruction for genital prolapse.
One hundred and thirty-eight women underwent surgery for uterovaginal or vault prolapse. Follow-up data were available for 122 cases; 83% were examined and others were interviewed by telephone. The median (range) follow-up was 24 (1-141) months. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with recurrence; uni- and multivariate regression was used to identify risk factors underlying postoperative infections because infections were found to be a risk factor of recurrence. Recurrence-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Seven (5%) patients suffered severe cardiopulmonary complications including one postoperative death due to a pulmonary embolism. Twenty-six (21%) patients suffered a recurrence, 14 with cystocele. Ten patients with recurrence were symptomatic and six underwent a re-operation. The Cox regression model showed that vaginal cuff infection raised the odds ratio (OR) for recurrence to 6.13 [confidence interval (CI) 1.80-20.83] and urinary tract infection to 3.65 (CI 1.40-9.47). In both uni- and multivariate analysis, lack of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, age less than 73 years and vaginal ulcerations were statistically significant risk factors for postoperative infection. Eleven (33%) out of 33 sexually active women reported improvement and three (9%) complained of dyspareunia.
Transvaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation with pelvic floor repair is an effective means of correcting both vault prolapse and uterine procidentia. Women who wish to preserve coital function will also benefit from this operation. Postoperative infection is an independent and most important individual risk factor underlying recurrence. Prophylactic antibiotics seem to be effective in reducing the rate of postoperative infections.
Reports of respiratory tract infections in a rehabilitation center for alcoholics triggered the epidemiological investigations in Tampere, Finland. Twenty-nine out of 40 residents (attack rate 73%) and four members of staff fulfilled the case criteria: cough; worsening of dyspnea; or rhinitis with or without fever. Ten cases were hospitalized, one needed treatment in the intensive care unit. All cases recovered. Serum hMPV antibody titer was high (10 240 or more) in 20 (69%) of the 29 tested cases and the difference was significant when compared with the titer measured from the voluntary laboratory personnel (n = 14, p
The widely used serum endomysial (EmA) and transglutaminase 2 (TG2-ab) antibodies predict forthcoming villous damage and celiac disease when the small-bowel mucosa structure is still normal. However, these autoantibodies may remain negative in this early stage of the disease. We hypothesized that the antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP-AGA) might appear before the other antibodies and would thus be useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with early-stage celiac disease.
Serum DGP-AGA, TG2-ab, and EmA were measured at baseline and after 1 year on a gluten-free diet in 42 adults proven to have early-stage celiac disease despite normal small-bowel mucosal morphology (Marsh I-II), and in 20 celiac subjects evincing villous atrophy (Marsh III). Thirty-nine subjects with no signs of celiac disease served as nonceliac controls.
Sensitivity to detect early-stage celiac disease was 79% for DGP-AGA, 64% for TG2-ab, and 81% for EmA. Specificities were 95%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The corresponding efficiencies of the tests were 89% for DGP-AGA, 81% for TG2-ab, and 91% for EmA. All 3 antibodies were significantly decreased on a gluten-free diet.
This study showed that the sensitivity of DGP-AGA was superior to TG2-ab and comparable to EmA in celiac patients having early-stage celiac disease with normal villous morphology. On the basis of these results, DGP-AGA would seem to offer a promising new method for case-finding and follow-up in this entity.
We evaluated acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by adolescents and their parents, 83% and 86% of whom accepted vaccination. Improving knowledge and awareness of HPV, and addressing parental concerns about vaccinating adolescents, most notably on vaccinating against a sexually transmitted disease, should help tackle factors associated with being resistant to accepting HPV vaccination.