To examine the associations of adiposity, dietary restraint and other personal characteristics with energy reporting quality.
Secondary analysis of 230 women and 158 men from the 1997/98 Ontario Food Survey.
Energy reporting quality was estimated by ratios of energy intake (EI) to both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine energy reporting quality between two dietary recalls and in relation to body mass index (BMI) with adjustment for potential confounders. Energy reporting quality was explored across categories of age, BMI, income, education, dieting status and food insecurity through analysis of variance (ANOVA).
From the ANOVA, energy reporting quality was associated with BMI group, age category and weight loss for men and women, as well as with education among women (P 0.05). EI:BMR and EI:TEE on the first and second 24-hour recalls were positively related (P
The effect that neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has on tuberculin skin test (TST) results is not well evaluated in preschool children.
This was a retrospective cohort study of TST results in aboriginal children in Saskatchewan reserve communities. Records from the centralized provincial tuberculosis program were searched for aboriginal children aged 0 to 4 years during the time period 1991 to 1999. Only the first TST result reported as part of infant and preschool screening programs was considered. Children with active tuberculosis and those evaluated as part of a contact-tracing program were excluded. The BCG-vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were compared using wheal size cut points of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm.
Data from 1,086 children with neonatal BCG vaccination and 1,867 unvaccinated children were analyzed. The rate of TST reactions was higher in vaccinated children at all ages, using a cut point of 5 mm. The rate of TST reactions was no different in vaccinated children >or= 1 year old when using a cut point of 15 mm. When using a cut point of 10 mm, the rate of TST reactions was higher at age 1 year but not different at age 4 years in the vaccinated children.
The rate of TST reactions in preschool aboriginal children living on a reserve who have received neonatal BCG vaccination is affected by the cut point and age. The BCG vaccination status and age should therefore be considered when interpreting TST reactivity in the clinical assessment of aboriginal children participating in a tuberculosis control program.
In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.
Gestational hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Recent evidence suggests that women with gestational hypertension have a high rate of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Using laboratory-based polysomnography, we evaluated for the frequency of SDB in women with gestational hypertension compared to healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies.
In this single-center cross-sectional study, women with the diagnosis of gestational hypertension were screened in the Fetal Assessment Unit and Antepartum ward. Healthy subjects were recruited by local advertising. Subjects completed a series of questionnaires addressing sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, followed by full night polysomnography. The primary outcome was frequency of SDB (defined as a respiratory disturbance index = 5) in the gestational hypertension and healthy groups.
A total of 34 women with gestational hypertension and singleton pregnancies and 26 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies consented to participate in the study. The mean ages and gestational ages, but not the body mass indices, of the 2 groups were similar. The frequencies of SDB in the more obese gestational hypertension group and the healthy group were 53% and 12%, respectively (P
Patient-centred care is a value espoused by most healthcare systems and a concept taught in nursing education programs as a fundamental concept of patient care. In this study, we focused on the patient's experience of patient-centredness, interviewing eighteen patients and eight family members about their experiences as patients on an in-patient acute care medical unit in a large hospital in Canada. Approximately half of the patients expressed satisfaction with their experiences and their involvement in decisions about their healthcare. The remainder expressed concerns about their care that jeopardized their experiences of patient-centredness. These areas concerned issues of communication with and among healthcare professionals, relationships with these care providers, trust and respect in the professional relationships, and general satisfaction with care. Participants provided advice to professional students about ways to interact more effectively with their patients to establish caring, empathetic, patient-centred relationships as the basis for care. We address patient recommendations to support learner understanding of the patient experience both in classrooms and clinical experiences throughout educational programs as a means to enhance their patient-centredness.
Among Canadians, previous research has associated obesity with indicators of socioeconomic position. Several health behaviours have demonstrated similar variation, suggesting that social patterning of obesity may be partially explained by behavioural differences. The objective of this study was to examine obesity in relation to income and education among Canadians, and to characterize the indirect associations potentially occurring through fruit and vegetable intake, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and smoking. The present secondary analysis of the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey was restricted to adults (25-64 y) with measured height and weight data (men, n = 3767; women, n = 3823). Interrelationships among socioeconomic indicators, behaviours, and BMI groups were examined by age-adjusted path analysis. For men, obesity was positively associated with income directly and through current smoking. Obesity was also negatively associated with education, directly and through fruit and vegetable intake, and was negatively associated with income through LTPA (r2 = 0.17). For women, obesity was negatively associated with education both directly and indirectly through LTPA and with fruit and vegetable intake. No direct association was observed between income and obesity for women, but an indirect negative association existed via LTPA and fruit and vegetable intake (r2 = 0.15). The direct and indirect associations between obesity and socioeconomic indicators were consistently inverse among women, but this relationship was not the case in men, suggesting that clearer social patterns of adiposity exist for Canadian women. The limited amount of variance explained by these models likely reflects the complexity of obesity development.