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14-year diabetes incidence: the role of socio-economic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139840
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Sep;21(3):19-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Nancy A Ross
Heather Gilmour
Kaberi Dasgupta
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Nancy.Ross@mcgill.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Sep;21(3):19-28
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Algorithms
Canada - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Family Characteristics
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Income
Interviews as Topic
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in Diabetics - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Diabetes prevalence is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), but less is known about the relationship between SES and diabetes incidence.
Data from eight cycles of the National Population Health Survey (1994/1995 through 2008/2009) are used. A sample of 5,547 women and 6,786 men aged 18 or older who did not have diabetes in 1994/1995 was followed to determine if household income and educational attainment were associated with increased risk of diagnosis of or death from diabetes by 2008/2009. Three proportional hazards models were applied for income and for education--for men, for women and for both sexes combined. Independent variables were measured at baseline (1994/1995). Diabetes diagnosis was assessed by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Diabetes death was based on ICD-10 codes E10-E14.
Among people aged 18 or older in 1994/1995 who were free of diabetes, 7.2% of men and 6.3% of women had developed or died from the disease by 2008/2009. Lower-income women were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than were those in high-income households. This association was attenuated, but not eliminated, by ethno-cultural background and obesity/overweight. Associations with lower educational attainment in unadjusted models were almost completely mediated by demographic and behavioural variables.
Social gradients in diabetes incidence cannot be explained entirely by demographic and behavioural variables.
PubMed ID
20973430 View in PubMed
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Source
Health Rep. 2010 Dec;21(4):53-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Pamela L Ramage-Morin
Heather Gilmour
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division at Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6. Pamela.Ramage-Morin@statcan.gc.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Dec;21(4):53-61
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Activities of Daily Living
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Chronic Disease
Female
Health Services - utilization
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Pain - epidemiology
Pain Measurement
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
According to results from the 2007/2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, about 1 in 10 Canadians aged 12 to 44-9% of males and 12% of females, an estimated 1.5 million people--experienced chronic pain. The prevalence of chronic pain increased with age and was significantly higher among people in households where the level of educational attainment was low and among the Aboriginal population. The most common pain-related chronic conditions at ages 12 to 44 were back problems and migraine headaches. Chronic pain prevented at least a few activities in the majority of sufferers. It was associated with activity limitations and needing help with everyday tasks, and had work-related implications. Individuals with chronic pain were frequent users of health care services, and were less likely than people without chronic pain to respond positively on measures of well-being, including mood and anxiety disorders.
PubMed ID
21269012 View in PubMed
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Cognitive performance of Canadian seniors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132092
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):27-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Heather Gilmour
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis at Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.gc.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):27-31
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Cognition
Comorbidity
Female
Geriatric Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mental health
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
With data from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey--Healthy Aging Cognition Module, five cognitive functioning categories based on normative values that adjust for age, sex and education were created. The two lowest categories were combined to identify seniors (65 or older) without Alzheimer's disease or dementia living in private households, who had low scores on four cognitive tasks: first recall, second recall, semantic fluency, and processing speed. Low income, not living with a spouse or partner, and diabetes were associated with low scores on each task. Heart disease, impairment in instrumental and daily activities, receiving home care, social participation, loneliness, and self-perceived general and mental health were also associated with low cognitive performance, although the associations differed by cognitive task.
PubMed ID
21848130 View in PubMed
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Dependency, chronic conditions and pain in seniors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169533
Source
Health Rep. 2006;16 Suppl:21-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Heather Gilmour
Jungwee Park
Author Affiliation
Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2006;16 Suppl:21-31
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Pain - epidemiology
Abstract
This article presents the prevalence of dependency and selected chronic conditions among Canadians aged 65 or older living in households. Associations between chronic conditions and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are examined.
Estimates are based on data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey.
Cross-tabulations were used to estimate the prevalence of ADL/IADL dependency and chronic conditions. Associations between chronic conditions and dependency were studied using multiple logistic regression models.
The prevalence of ADL/IADL dependency and chronic conditions increased with age. IADL dependency was more common than ADL dependency. When chronic pain was taken into account, associations between ADL dependency and arthritis/rheumatism, diabetes and urinary incontinence were no longer significant, and the association between IADL dependency and diabetes lost significance. Regardless of chronic pain, Alzheimer's disease or other dementia and the effects of stroke were significantly related to dependency.
PubMed ID
16646272 View in PubMed
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Source
Health Rep. 2008 Sep;19(3):7-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Heather Gilmour
Author Affiliation
Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontorio. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2008 Sep;19(3):7-17
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Depression - complications - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Heart Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
A population-based sample of 4948 men and women aged 40 or older who did not have heart disease in 1994/1995 were followed to 2006/ 2007 to determine if depression was associated with increased risk of heart disease diagnosis or death.
Data from seven cycles of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS), 1994/1995 through 2006/2007, were used for longitudinal analysis. Prevalence estimates of heart disease and depression in the population aged 40 years or older were based on the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being.
The association between depression and heart disease was analyzed with separate proportional hazards models for men and women, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and heart disease risk factors.
Among people aged 40 or older and free of heart disease in 1994/1995, 19% of men and 15% of women had developed or died from heart disease by 2006/2007. The risk of heart disease was significantly higher for women who had depression, but not for men. When heart disease events occurring within two years of baseline were removed, depression was not significantly associated with heart disease risk among women or men.
PubMed ID
18847141 View in PubMed
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Source
Health Rep. 2007 Feb;18(1):9-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Heather Gilmour
Scott B Patten
Author Affiliation
Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2007 Feb;18(1):9-22
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Depression - epidemiology
Efficiency
Employment - psychology
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Occupational Health
Social Support
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
This article estimates the prevalence of depression among employed Canadians aged 25 to 64, and examines its association with work impairment, as measured by reduced work activity, mental health/general disability days, and work absence.
Data are from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being and the longitudinal household component of the National Population Health Survey (1994/1995 to 2002/2003).
Cross-tabulations were used to estimate and determine factors associated with the prevalence of depression among the employed population. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between depression and work impairment while controlling for other variables. Longitudinal data for 1994/1995 to 2002/2003 were used to examine the temporal sequence of depression and work impairment.
In 2002, almost 4% of employed people aged 25 to 64 had had an episode of depression in the previous year. Crosssectional analysis indicates that these workers had high odds of reducing work activity because of a long-term health condition, having at least one mental health disability day in the past two weeks, and being absent from work in the past week. Longitudinally, depression was associated with reduced work activity and disability days two years later.
PubMed ID
17441440 View in PubMed
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Development and validation of prediction algorithms for major depressive episode in the general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112853
Source
J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct;151(1):39-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Jian Li Wang
Douglas Manuel
Jeanne Williams
Norbert Schmitz
Heather Gilmour
Scott Patten
Glenda MacQueen
Arden Birney
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. jlwang@ucalgary.ca
Source
J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct;151(1):39-45
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Algorithms
Canada - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder, Major - etiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
To develop and validate sex specific prediction algorithms for 4-year risk of major depressive episode (MDE) using data from a population-based longitudinal cohort.
Household residents from 10 provinces were randomly recruited and interviewed by Statistics Canada. 10,601 participants who were aged 18 years and older and who did not meet the criteria for MDE in the 12 months prior to a baseline interview in 2000/01 were included in algorithm development; data from 7902 participants who were aged 18 and older and who were free of MDE in 2004/05 were used for validation. Validation was also conducted in sub-populations that are of practice and policy importance. MDE was assessed using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview(CIDI)-Short Form for Major Depression (CIDI-SFMD).
In the training data, the C statistics for algorithms in men was 0.7953 and was 0.7667 for algorithm in women. The algorithms had good predictive power and calibrated well in the development and validation data.
The data relied on self-report. MDE was assessed with CIDI-SFMD. It was not feasible to validate the algorithms in different populations from different countries.
More studies are needed to further validate and refine these algorithms. However, the ability of a small number of easily assessed variables to predict MDE risk indicates that algorithms are a promising strategy for identifying individuals in need of enhanced monitoring and preventive interventions. Ultimately, application of algorithms may lead to increased personalization of treatment, and better clinical outcomes.
PubMed ID
23790813 View in PubMed
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Source
Health Rep. 2010 Dec;21(4):63-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Heather Gilmour
Nancy Hofmann
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division at Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.gc.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Dec;21(4):63-9
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Child
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Early results (January to April) from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey show that an estimated 41% of Canadians (excluding those in the territories) aged 12 or older had been vaccinated for H1N1 by April 2010. The percentages were higher in the Atlantic provinces, Quebec and Saskatchewan than in Canada overall. Relatively high percentages of females and people aged 45 or older were vaccinated; the percentage of immigrants who had done so was relatively low. Being in a priority group (health-care worker, having children younger than 5 in the household, or having a chronic condition that could increase the risk for complications from H1N1) increased the likelihood of vaccination. A history of seasonal flu vaccination and having a regular doctor were also associated with H1N1 vaccination. Nearly three-quarters of those who had not been vaccinated reported that they did not think it was necessary.
PubMed ID
21269013 View in PubMed
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Source
Health Rep. 2007 Aug;18(3):45-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Heather Gilmour
Author Affiliation
Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontorio. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2007 Aug;18(3):45-65
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Canada
Child
Exercise - physiology
Female
Geography
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Humans
Leisure Activities
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
PubMed ID
17892251 View in PubMed
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Social participation and the health and well-being of Canadian seniors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116836
Source
Health Rep. 2012 Dec;23(4):23-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Heather Gilmour
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6. Heather.Gilmour@statcan.gc.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2012 Dec;23(4):23-32
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health status
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Personal Satisfaction
Social Support
Abstract
Social participation has been associated with health and well-being in older adults.
Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Healthy Aging were used to examine the relationship between frequent social participation and self-perceived health, loneliness and life dissatisfaction in a sample of 16,369 people aged 65 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders. The mediating role of social support and the prevalence of reported barriers to greater social participation were also examined.
An estimated 80% of seniors were frequent participants in at least one social activity. As the number of different types of frequent social activities increased, so did the strength of associations between social participation and positive self-perceived health, loneliness, and life dissatisfaction. The associations generally remained significant, but were attenuated by individual social support dimensions. The desire to be more involved in social activities was reported by 21% of senior men and 27% of senior women.
Social participation is an important correlate of health and well-being in older adults. It may be that social support gained through social contacts is as important in these associations as the number of activities in which one participates frequently.
PubMed ID
23356042 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.