We investigated barriers to healthful eating and vitamin/mineral supplement use among groups at risk for low nutrient intakes, particularly those with low income.
Twelve focus groups (73 participants) and 11 key informant interviews were conducted in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Focus group participants represented a diverse population. Key informants included health professionals and personnel from community-based organizations who worked in a low-income area. Focus group meetings and key informant interviews were audiotaped and transcribed; thematic coding was used to identify key concepts.
The focus groups and interviews revealed five themes on barriers to healthful eating and to the use of vitamin/mineral supplements: knowledge, income, accessibility, health, and preferences. Key informants were aware of the barriers, and were able to see not only individual and family reasons but also societal influences.
The study results provide valuable information for focusing efforts on reducing barriers to healthful eating and to appropriate vitamin/mineral supplement use.
To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.
Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.
Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).
A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, ?2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.
Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.
Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.
Little is known of the beverage intake patterns of Canadian children or of characteristics within these patterns. The objective was to determine beverage intake patterns among Canadian children and compare intakes of fourteen types of beverages, along with intakes of vitamin C and Ca, and sociodemographic factors across clusters.
Dietary information was collected using one 24 h recall. Sociodemographic data were collected by interview. Cluster analysis was used to determine beverage intake patterns. Pearson's ?2 and 95 % CI were used to test differences across clusters.
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2·2.
Children aged 2-18 years with plausible energy intake and complete sociodemographic data (n 10 038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5-year-old boys and girls, 6-11-year-old girls, 6-11-year-old boys, 12-18-year-old girls and 12-18-year-old boys.
Five beverage clusters emerged for children aged 2-5 years, six clusters for children aged 6-11 years (both sexes) and four clusters for those aged 12-18 years (both sexes). Sweetened beverage clusters appeared in all age-sex groups. Intakes of sweetened beverages ranged from 553 to 1059 g/d and contributed between 2 % and 18 % of total energy intake. Girls 6-11 years of age in the 'soft drink' cluster had lower Ca intake compared with other clusters in that age-sex group. Age and ethnicity differed across clusters for most age-sex groups. Differences for household food security status and income were found; however, no pattern emerged.
Patterns in beverage intake among Canadian children include beverages that are predominantly sugar sweetened. Public health nutrition professionals can use knowledge about beverage patterns among children, as well as the characteristics of these groups, in the development of nutritional programmes and policies.
Sweetened beverage intake has risen in past decades, along with a rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Our objective was to examine the relationship between beverage intake patterns and overweight and obesity among Canadian children. Beverage intake patterns were identified by cluster analysis of data from the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Intake data were obtained from a single 24-hour recall, height and weight were measured, and sociodemographic data were obtained via interview. Data on children and adolescents aged 2-18 years who met inclusion criteria (n = 10?038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5 years (male and female), 6-11 years (female), 6-11 years (male), 12-18 years (female), and 12-18 years (male). ?² test was used to compare rates of overweight and obesity across clusters. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between overweight and obesity and beverage intake patterns, adjusting for potential confounders. Clustering resulted in distinct groups of who drank mostly fruit drinks, soft drinks, 100% juice, milk, high-fat milk, or low-volume and varied beverages (termed "moderate"). Boys aged 6-11 years whose beverage pattern was characterized by soft drink intake (553 ± 29 g) had increased odds of overweight-obesity (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.1) compared with a "moderate" beverage pattern (23 ± 4 g soft drink). No significant relationship emerged between beverage pattern and overweight and obesity among other age-sex groups. Using national cross-sectional dietary intake data, Canadian children do not show a beverage-weight association except among young boys who drink mostly soft drinks, and thus may be at increased risk for overweight or obesity.
Adequate dietary intake during the growth period is critical for bone mineral accretion. In 1997, an adequate intake (AI) of 1300 mg/d Ca was set for North American adolescents aged 9-18 years based on best available data. We determined bone Ca accrual values from age 9 to 18 years taking into account sex and maturity. Furthermore, we used the accrual data to estimate adolescents' Ca requirements. Total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) of eighty-five boys and sixty-seven girls participating in the Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study were used to determine annual TBBMC accumulation over the pubertal growth period. Using a similar factorial approach as the AI, we estimated Ca requirements of adolescent boys and girls for two age groups: 9-13 and 14-18 years. Between 9 and 18 years, boys accrued 198.8 (SD 74.5) g bone mineral content (BMC) per year, equivalent to 175.4 (SD 65.7) mg Ca per d with the maximum BMC accrual of 335.9 g from age 13 to 14 years. Girls had 138.1 (SD 64.2) g BMC per year, equalling121.8 (SD 56.6) mg Ca per d with the maximum annual BMC accrual of 266.0 g from age 12 to 13 years. Differences were observed between both sex and age groups with respect to Ca needs: boys and girls aged 9-13 years would require 1000-1100 mg/d Ca, and from age 14 to 18 years, the mean Ca requirements would be relatively stable at 1000 mg/d for girls but would rise to 1200 mg/d for boys.
Little is known about the dietary habits of people with optimal body weight in communities with high overweight and obesity prevalence.
To evaluate carbohydrate intake in relation to overweight and obesity in healthy, free-living adults.
We used a cross-sectional analysis.
The Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 is a cross-sectional survey of Canadians conducted in 2004-2005. There were 4,451 participants aged 18 years and older with anthropometric and dietary data and no comorbid conditions in this analysis.
Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) and overweight or obesity status (dichotomous) defined as BMI > or =25 compared with BMI
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):324-3218689367
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;65(4 Suppl):1220S-1228S; discussion 1229S-1231S9094926
Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification.
Overweight and obesity in Canada have significantly increased during the last three decades, paralleled by increased intake of fat and sugar, particularly sugary beverages. The Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, conducted in 2004 (CCHS 2.2), provides the opportunity to evaluate beverage intakes in relation to overweight and obesity using body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI in Canadian adults.
CCHS 2.2 data were used (n=14,304, aged >18 years and
The objective of this study was to determine trends in calcium intake from foods of Canadian adults from 1970-1972 to 2004. We compiled the calcium intake of adults (aged >or=19 years) from foods from Nutrition Canada (1970-1972; n = 7036); 9 provincial nutrition surveys (1990-1999; n = 16 915); and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 20 197). Where possible, we used published confidence intervals to test for significant differences in calcium intake. In 2004, the mean calcium intake of Canadians was below Dietary Reference Intake recommendations for most adults, with the greatest difference in older adults (>or=51 years), in part because the recommended calcium intake for this group is higher (1200 mg) than that for younger adults (1,000 mg). The calcium intake of males in every age category was greater than that of females. Calcium intake increased from 1970 to 2004, yet, despite the introduction of calcium-fortified beverages to the market in the late 1990s, increases in calcium intake between 1970 and 2004 were modest. Calcium intakes in provinces were mostly similar in the 1990s and in 2004, except for women in Newfoundland and Labrador, who consumed less, especially in the 1990s, and for young men in 2004 in Prince Edward Island, who consumed more. When supplemental calcium intake was added, mean intakes remained below recommended levels, except for males 19-30 years, but the prevalence of adequacy increased in all age groups, notably for women over 50 years. The calcium intake of Canadian adults remains in need of improvement, despite fortification and supplement use.
The link between diet quality and socio-economic status (SES) may extend to the use of vitamin/ mineral supplements. This article examines factors related to Canadians' use of such supplements, with emphasis on associations with household income and education.
The data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition (n = 35,107). The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplement consumption during the previous month was recorded. Supplement use at the national level was estimated by age/sex groups, SES and chronic conditions. Logistic regression was used to determine significant associations between socio-economic factors and vitamin/mineral supplement use. Estimates of usual calcium intake from food and from food plus supplements were obtained using SIDE-IML.
The prevalence of supplement use was significantly higher in females than in males in all age groups 14 or older. Age, being female, high household income and education, and being food-secure were positively associated with supplement use. Supplement use substantially increased the percentage of the population, particularly older adults, meeting the Adequate Intake level for calcium.
The reported use of vitamin/mineral supplements varies by age, sex and SES. The relatively low prevalence of use among Canadians of low SES is similar to findings from American studies. These individuals, already at risk for inadequate intake from food, do not make up the difference with vitamin/ mineral supplements.