This study evaluates the agreement between different methods to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large sample of Finnish adults. Methods were classified and examined pairwise (accelerometer vs diary; questionnaire vs interview). Proportion of participants meeting the aerobic health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) recommendation was compared pairwise between all four methods. The present study of 1916 adults aged 18-75 years (mean age 50 years, 57% women) is a sub-sample of population-based Health 2011 Study conducted by the National Institute of Health and Welfare in Finland. Participants used accelerometer for 7 days and completed physical activity (PA) diary during the same period. PA questionnaire and interview were completed retrospectively to assess typical weekly PA over the past year. Agreement between the methods was analyzed with paired samples t-test and Bland-Altman plot. Kappa-test was used to compare the prevalence of meeting the HEPA recommendation. The accelerometer resulted in 13 minutes (P
This study assessed the current trend in the number and incidence (per 100,000 persons) of fall-induced severe head injuries among the very old adults in Finland, an EU-country with a well-defined white population of 5.2 million, by taking into account all persons 80 years of age or older who were admitted to our hospitals for primary treatment of such injury in 1970-2004. The number of Finns aged 80 years or older with a fall-induced severe head injury increased considerably between the years 1970 and 2004, from 60 (women) and 25 (men) in 1970 to 745 (women), and 350 (men) in 2004. The relative increases were 1142 and 1300%, respectively. Across the study period, the age-adjusted incidence of injury also showed a clear increase from 1970 to 2004, from 168 to 506 in women (201% increase), and from 172 to 609 in men (254% increase). A similar finding was observed in age-specific incidences. If the age-adjusted incidence of injury continues to rise at the same rate as in 1970-2004 and the size of the 80 year old or older population of Finland increases as predicted (approximately 2.2-fold increase during the coming 25 years), the number of fall-induced severe head injuries in this population will be about 3.4-fold higher in the year 2030 than it was in 2004. In Finnish persons 80 years of age or older, the number of fall-induced severe head injuries shows an alarming rise with a rate that cannot be explained merely by the demographic changes of the population. The finding underscores an increasing influence of falls on well-being of our elderly persons, and therefore, effective fall-prevention actions should be initiated to control this development.
Association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) bone traits at the distal and shaft sites of the radius and tibia was evaluated in the Young Finns Cohort (n=1777). We also analyzed the interactions of the APOE promoter polymorphisms (-219G/T rs405509 and +113G/C rs440446) and bone traits within the APOE e3/e3 genotype (n=1025 and n=1013, respectively), and investigated the gene-environment interactions on bone traits with longitudinal saturated fatty acids (SAFA) intake. Differences between the e4 allele carriers and noncarriers were modest and mostly nonsignificant. Within the APOE promoter -219G/T polymorphism, cortical strength index (CSI) and compressive bone strength index (BSI) at the distal radius (linear, P=0.003 and P=0.05, respectively) and tibia (linear, P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively), and CSI at the tibial shaft (linear, P=0.04) decreased towards the -219T/T genotype in women. In men, total cross-sectional areas at the radial site and stress-strain index (SSI) at the radial shaft (linear, P=0.03 and P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively) increased, and conversely cortical bone density and CSI at the radial shaft (linear, P=0.005 and P=0.05, respectively) and CSI at the tibial shaft (linear, P=0.03) decreased towards the -219T/T genotype. In the highest SAFA tertile, women with the -219T/T genotype had the smallest total area and SSI at the radial shaft (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). Subjects with the APOE +113C/C genotype shared similar bone traits as subjects with the APOE -219T/T genotype. In conclusion, APOE genotypes -219T/T and +113C/C could be genetic markers for cortical bone strength. Furthermore, high longitudinal SAFA intake seems to be more detrimental to bone in women with the -219T/T and +133C/C genotypes than others.
Background We evaluated the association of accelerometer-based sedentary behaviour and physical activity with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Design The design of this study used a population-based, cross-sectional sample. Methods A subsample of participants in the Health 2011 Study in Finland used the tri-axial accelerometer (=4 days, >10?h/day, n?=?1398). Sedentary behaviour (sitting, lying) and standing still in six-second epochs were recognised from raw acceleration data based on intensity and device orientation. The intensity of physical activity was calculated as one-minute moving averages of mean amplitude deviation of resultant acceleration and converted to metabolic equivalents. Metabolic equivalents were categorised to light physical activity (1.5-2.9 metabolic equivalents) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity=3.0 metabolic equivalents). Daily sedentary behaviour, standing still, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were expressed as mean daily total time, accumulated time and number of different bouts (from 30?s to >30?min), mean daily metabolic equivalent and weekly peak metabolic equivalent levels of different bout lengths and number of breaks in sedentary behaviour. The ten-year cardiovascular disease risk was based on the Framingham risk model. Results The mean number of daily sedentary behaviour bouts was more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease risk than mean daily total time. In the best model, smaller waist circumference, greater value of mean daily metabolic equivalent levels of one-minute bouts, higher accumulated time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity lasting =30?min, higher number of >5?min standing bouts and a higher number of long (>30?min) bouts of light physical activity were significantly associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk (R2?=?0.836). Conclusions The objectively measured number and accumulated time from different bout lengths of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were associated with cardiovascular disease risk, which is considered relevant for estimating cardiovascular diseases and for devising preventive actions.
We investigated whether screen-detected and apparently asymptomatic adults with endomysial antibodies (EmA) benefit from a gluten-free diet (GFD).
We performed a prospective trial of 3031 individuals at risk for celiac disease based on screens for EmA. Of 148 seropositive individuals, 40 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were assigned randomly to groups placed on a GFD or gluten-containing diets. We evaluated ratios of small-bowel mucosal villous height:crypt depth, serology and laboratory test results, gastrointestinal symptom scores, physiologic well-being, perception of health by a visual analog scale, bone mineral density, and body composition at baseline and after 1 year. Thereafter, the group on the gluten-containing diet started a GFD and was evaluated a third time; subjects in the GFD group remained on this diet.
After 1 year on the GFD, the mean mucosal villous height:crypt depth values increased (P
previously, a randomised controlled exercise intervention study (RCT) showed that combined resistance and balance-jumping training (COMB) improved physical functioning and bone strength. The purpose of this follow-up study was to assess whether this exercise intervention had long-lasting effects in reducing injurious falls and fractures.
five-year health-care register-based follow-up study after a 1-year, four-arm RCT.
community-dwelling older women in Finland.
one hundred and forty-five of the original 149 RCT participants; women aged 70-78 years at the beginning.
participants' health-care visits were collected from computerised patient register. An injurious fall was defined as an event in which the subject contacted the health-care professionals or was taken to a hospital, due to a fall. The rate of injured fallers was assessed by Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, HR), and the rate of injurious falls and fractures by Poisson regression (risk ratio, RR).
eighty-one injurious falls including 26 fractures occurred during the follow-up. The rate of injured fallers was 62% lower in COMB group compared with the controls (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.85). In addition, COMB group had 51% less injurious falls (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.98) and 74% less fractures (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.97).
home-dwelling older women who participated in a 12-month intensive multi-component exercise training showed a reduced incidence for injurious falls during 5-year post-intervention period. Reduction in fractures was also evident. These long-term effects need to be confirmed in future studies.
Fear of falling has been linked to activity restriction, functional decline, decreased quality of life and increased risk of falling. Factors that distinguish persons with a high concern about falling from those with low concern have not been systematically studied.
This study aimed to expose potential health-related, functional and psychosocial factors that correlate with fear of falling among independently living older women who had fallen in the past year.
Baseline data of 409 women aged 70-80 years recruited to a randomised falls prevention trial (DEX) (NCT00986466) were used. Participants were classified according to their level of concern about falling using the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore associations between health-related variables, functional performance tests, amount of physical activity, quality of life and FES-I scores.
68% of the participants reported a moderate to high concern (FES-I = 20) about falls. Multinomial logistic regression showed that highly concerned women were significantly more likely to have poorer health and quality of life and lower functional ability. Reported difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, balance, outdoor mobility and poorer quality of life contributed independently to a greater concern about falling.
Concern about falling was highly prevalent in our sample of community-living older women. In particular, poor perceived general health and mobility constraints contributed independently to the difference between high and low concern of falling. Knowledge of these associations may help in developing interventions to reduce fear of falling and activity avoidance in old age.
Low-trauma fractures (also called osteoporotic fragility fractures or fall-induced fractures) of older adults are a serious public health problem. However, very little population-based information is available on the nationwide numbers, incidences, and especially secular trends of elderly people's low-trauma fractures of the distal humerus.
We assessed the current trends in the number and incidence of these fractures in 60-year-old or older women in Finland by taking into account all women who were admitted to Finnish hospitals for primary treatment of such fracture in 1970-2014.
The annual number of low-trauma distal humeral fractures among Finnish women 60 years of age or older rose over fivefold between 1970 and 1998 (from 42 to 224 fractures), but thereafter, the number decreased down to 198 fractures in 2014. The age-adjusted incidence (per 100,000 persons) of these fractures also increased in 1970-1998 (from 12 to 35) but decreased thereafter to 23 in 2014. The finding was similar in the age-specific patient groups (60-69, 70-79, and 80+): The incidence rose from 1970 till 1998 and decreased thereafter.
The steep rise in the rate of low-trauma distal humeral fractures in 60-year-old or older Finnish women from 1970 till late 1990s has been followed by a clearly declining fracture rate. The exact reasons for this secular change are unknown, but a cohort effect toward improved functional ability among elderly women, as well as measures to prevent falls and alleviate fall severity, could partly explain the phenomenon.
Elderly people's fall-induced injuries are a major public health challenge.
We determined the current trends in the number and age-adjusted incidence (per 100,000 persons) of fall-induced injuries among older adults in Finland by taking into account all persons 80 years of age or older who were admitted to Finnish hospitals for primary treatment of a first fall injury over the period 1970-2009.
The number of fall-induced injuries in elderly Finns increased considerably during the study period: for women and men separately, these numbers were from 927 to 10,333 (an 11-fold rise), and from 212 to 3,258 (a 15-fold rise), respectively. In both genders, the age-adjusted incidence (per 100,000 persons) of fall-induced injuries increased till the late 1990s but decreased thereafter, the incidence being 2,729 (women) and 1,455 (men) in 1970, and 5,930 (women) and 4,240 (men) in 2009. Even with the current injury incidence the number of these injuries is expected to more than double by the year 2030.
The rise in the age-adjusted incidence of hospital-treated fall injuries of 80 year old and older Finns from the 1970s to the late 1990s has been followed by declining injury rates. Despite this we have to effectively continue implementation of fall prevention actions.