To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns.
Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed.
The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients' status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals' strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways.
The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development.
In this grounded theory study, the authors interviewed caregivers and patients in end-of-life cancer care and found Balancing to be a fundamental process explaining the problem-solving strategies of most participants and offering a comprehensive perspective on both health care in general and end-of-life cancer care in particular. Balancing stages were Weighing--sensing needs and wishes signaled by patients, gauging them against caregiver resources in diagnosing and care planning; Shifting--breaking bad news, changing care places, and treatments; and Compensating--controlling symptoms, educating and team-working, prioritizing and "stretching" time, innovating care methods, improvising, and maintaining the homeostasis of hope. The Balancing outcome is characterized by Compromising, or "Walking a fine line," at best an optimized situation, at worst a deceit.
In this grounded theory study, the authors analyze interviews and participant observation data related to palliative cancer nursing in hospitals. Striving for Emotional Survival emerged as the pattern of behavior through which nurses deal with their main concern, the risk of being emotionally overloaded by their work. It involved three main strategies: Emotional Shielding through Professional Shielding or Cold Shielding; Emotional Processing through Chatting, Confirmation Seeking, Self-Reflecting, or Ruminating; and Emotional Postponing through Storing or Stashing. Emotional Competence is a property of Striving for Emotional Survival that explains more or less adequate ways of dealing with emotional overload. The theory Striving for Emotional Survival can be useful in the nurses' daily work and provides a comprehensive framework for understanding how nurses deal with emotional difficulties. The authors suggest that health care organizations encourage self-care, prioritize time to talk, and offer counseling to nursing staff with emotionally difficult working conditions.
Starting in 2015, the Swedish government has initiated a national reform to standardize cancer patient pathways and thereby eventually speed up treatment of cancer. Cancer care in Sweden is characterized by high survival rates and a generally high quality albeit long waiting times. The objective with the new national program to standardize cancer care pathways is to reduce these waiting times, increase patient satisfaction with cancer care and reduce regional inequalities. A new time-point for measuring the start of a care process is introduced called well-founded suspicion, which is individually designed for each cancer diagnosis. While medical guidelines are well established earlier, the standardisation is achieved by defining time boundaries for each step in the process. The cancer reform program is a collaborative effort initiated and incentivized by the central government while multi-professional groups develop the time-bound standardized care pathways, which the regional authorities are responsible for implementing. The broad stakeholder engagement and time-bound guidelines are interesting approaches to study for other countries that need to streamline care processes.
The technocratic and medicalized model of healthcare is rarely optimal for patients. By connecting two different studies we explore the possibilities of increasing quality of life in cancer care.
The first study captures survival strategies in a historically isolated Arctic village in Norway resulting in Momentary contentment theory, which emerged from analysing four years of participant observation and interview data. The second study conceptualizes everyday life of cancer patients based on in-depth interviews with 19 cancer patients; this was conceptualized as Navigating a new life situation. Both studies used classic grounded theory methodology. The connection between the studies is based on a health design approach.
We found a fit between cancer patients challenging life conditions and harsh everyday life in an Arctic village. Death, treatments and dependence have become natural parts of life where the importance of creating spaces-of-moments and a Sense of Safety is imminent to well-being. While the cancer patients are in a new life situation, the Arctic people show a natural ability to handle uncertainties.
By innovation theories connected to design thinking, Momentary contentment theory modified to fit cancer care would eventually be a way to improve cancer patients' quality of life.
In a holistic view of care, the family is important for the patient as well as for the staff and integration of family members in health care is a growing trend. Yet, family participation in the care is sparsely investigated and valid assessment instruments are needed.
Data were collected from 200 family members participating in an intervention study at an emergency department (ED) in Sweden.
The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Family (PCQ-F) is a measure for how family members perceive the psychosocial climate. PCQ-F is a self-report instrument that contains 17 items assessing safety, everydayness and hospitality--three subscale dimensions that mirror the Swedish patient version of the questionnaire, the PCQ-P.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PCQ-F in an ED context.
The psychometric properties of the PCQ-F were evaluated using statistical estimates of validity and reliability and showed high content validity and internal consistency. Cronbach's Alpha was >0.7 and item-total correlations were >0.3 and
The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate a 1-year learner-centred educational project in end-of-life care for home care staff in a rural district of Sweden. Another rural district in the same region served as a control area. A 20-item questionnaire measuring attitudes towards end-of-life care was designed, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale was used to measure mental well being. Increased agreement to 18 of 20 attitude statements was seen in the education group, while 2 of 20 items showed a decreased agreement in the control group. Test-retest reliability of the 20-item questionnaire was good (r=0.92). The total HAD score decreased from 8.3 pretest to 5.3 post-test in the education group (95% CI = 2.1 -3.7; P
Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants' perspectives on the research course.
An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed.
Primary care in Finland.
A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012.
Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research.
A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants.
Clinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities. A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral research course. A doctoral research course encouraged networking, and the course collaboration sometimes led to paper co-authoring. In the Nordic countries, the primary care health professionals are used to working in multi-professional teams. A multi-professional strategy also seems fruitful in doctoral research education.
An emergency department (ED) should offer timely care for acutely ill or injured persons that require the attention of specialized nurses and physicians. This study was aimed at exploring what is actually going on at an ED.
Qualitative data was collected 2009 to 2011 at one Swedish ED (ED1) with 53.000 yearly visits serving a population of 251.000. Constant comparative analysis according to classic grounded theory was applied to both focus group interviews with ED1 staff, participant observation data, and literature data. Quantitative data from ED1 and two other Swedish EDs were later analyzed and compared with the qualitative data.
The main driver of the ED staff in this study was to reduce non-acceptable waiting. Signs of non-acceptable waiting are physical densification, contact seeking, and the emergence of critical situations. The staff reacts with frustration, shame, and eventually resignation when they cannot reduce non-acceptable waiting. Waiting management resolves the problems and is done either by reducing actual waiting time by increasing throughput of patient flow through structure pushing and shuffling around patients, or by changing the experience of waiting by calming patients and feinting maneuvers to cover up.
To manage non-acceptable waiting is a driving force behind much of the staff behavior at an ED. Waiting management is done either by increasing throughput of patient flow or by changing the waiting experience.