To characterise the prevalence of, and changes in, coronary heart disease (CHD) among men and women aged between 64 and 71 years in the 1990s.
A study of clinical epidemiology involving two cohorts of elderly persons in 1990-1991 and 1998-1999.
Primary health care in the municipality of Lieto in southwestern Finland.
Persons between 64 and 71 years of age in the southwest of Finland in 1990-1991 and 1998-1999.
The occurrences of CHD were estimated using the history of a previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation procedure evident in the medical records and with ischaemia or infarction as established on ECG according to the Whitehall criteria.
The prevalence of 'probable' CHD decreased among men and women aged between 64 and 71 years, whereas the prevalence of 'possible' CHD decreased among women alone. Silent myocardial infarctions were common among women of both cohorts. Many more men of the second cohort, compared to the first one, had undergone a coronary angioplasty or bypass operation.
The prevalence of CHD decreased among elderly women more clearly than among young elderly men. The favourable development illustrating a decrease in the prevalence of CHD among women should be sustained, while health promotion activities will need to be directed more actively towards men.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in self-rated physical activity and diet during a type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention program were associated with changes in estimated 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in people at high risk for T2D.
Individuals were identified and offered lifestyle counseling as part of the Finnish diabetes prevention program. Ten-year risk for estimated CVD events and mortality were calculated with Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) formula. FRS was available for 774 men and 1474 women and SCORE for 961 men and 1766 women.
During the one-year follow-up, 9.6% of the men reported both an increase in physical activity and improved dietary pattern, 4.1% an increase in physical activity, 39.3% an increase in improved dietary pattern, while 47.0% reported no lifestyle changes. Corresponding numbers for women were 14.2%, 3.8%, 39.2% and 42.7%. Estimated 10-year risk for CVD events decreased 3.5% in men and 1.5% in women reporting an increase in physical activity and improvement in diet, compared to an increase of 0.15% in men (p
To compare medication use in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease with and without dementia.
All inhabitants aged 75 and older in Lieto, Finland (n = 462, participation rate 82%).
Direct standardised assessments of dementia and cardiovascular diseases. Quantification of drug use by self-report and by prescription and drug container checks.
In multivariate analyses, the odds ratio for demented cardiovascular patients receiving any cardiovascular medication (use vs. non-use) was 0.31 (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.82). Compared to the non-demented, demented stroke patients were treated less often with antithrombotic agents (p = 0.041) and demented hypertensive patients less often with beta-blockers (p = 0.045).
Demented cardiovascular patients, even mildly to moderately demented, were prescribed fewer evidence-based cardiovascular medications than non-demented patients.
Studies using traditional measures of socio-economic position, such as education, income and occupation, have found inequalities in depressive symptoms, but less is known about the association between financial satisfaction and depressive symptoms.
To examine the association of depressive symptoms with financial satisfaction in Finnish adults in a population-based cross-sectional FIN-D2D survey.
Four thousand, five hundred randomly selected individuals aged 45-74 years were invited to the study. Participation rate for health examinations was 64%. Complete information on depressive symptoms and financial satisfaction was available for 2,819 individuals. Financial satisfaction was asked using a questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured by Beck Depression Inventory (= 10) and/or use of antidepressants.
Altogether 11.6% of individuals who were satisfied with their financial situation had depressive symptoms. Corresponding figures for individuals who were somewhat satisfied or dissatisfied were 20.6% and 42.6%, respectively. Individuals who were less satisfied with their financial situation were more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms even after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, number of chronic diseases, smoking, binge drinking, physical activity, education and household income.
Instead of more traditional measures of socio-economic position, financial dissatisfaction seems to be associated with depressive symptoms in Finnish adults.
There is a worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and disturbances in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in Finnish population, and to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and abnormal glucose tolerance.
A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in Finland during October 2004 and January 2005. A total of 4500 randomly selected individuals aged 45-74 years were invited to a health examination that included an oral glucose tolerance test. The participation rate was 62% in men and 67% in women.
The prevalence of obesity was 23.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 21.1-25.9) in men, and 28.0% (95% CI 25.5-30.5) in women. The overall prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (including type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose) was 42.0% (95% CI 39.2-44.8) in men and 33.4% (95% CI 30.9-36.0) in women. The prevalence of previously unknown, screen-detected type 2 diabetes was 9.3% (95% CI 7.7-11.0) in men and 7.3% (95% CI 5.9-8.7) in women. Central obesity was associated with abnormal glucose tolerance within each of the three BMI categories normal (or= 30 kg/m2).
In a population-based random sample of Finnish population, prevalences of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance were found to be high. A remarkably high number of previously undetected cases of type 2 diabetes was detected. Waist circumference is a predictor of abnormal glucose tolerance in all categories of obesity.
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The implementation project of the national diabetes prevention programme in Finland, FIN-D2D, was carried out in primary health care in the area of five hospital districts during 2003-2007.
The population strategy of FIN-D2D was primarily aimed at increasing the awareness of type 2 diabetes and preventing obesity. To investigate the effects of this strategy, we studied the changes in the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and central obesity among a random independent sample of individuals aged 45-74 years in the FIN-D2D area; and assessed whether they differed from a sample of individuals in the control area, which consisted of four geographical areas not participating in FIN-D2D (FINRISK study). Data was obtained for 5850/ 6406 (in the beginning/ in the end) individuals. The duration of the observation period varied from three to five years.
The mean body weight decreased from 78.7 to 78.1 kg (p = 0.041) in the FIN-D2D area, and from 78.7 to 78.0 kg (p = NS) in the control area. The prevalence of obesity (BMI =30 kg/m(2)) decreased in the FIN-D2D area (26.5% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.015), and in the control area (28.4% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.005). The prevalence of morbid obesity (BMI =40 kg/m(2)) remained unchanged in the FIN-D2D area, but increased in the control area (1.2% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.007). The mean waist circumference remained unchanged in the FIN-D2D area, but increased in the control area (92.8 vs. 94.0 cm, p = 0.005).
The prevalence of obesity may be decreasing among 45-74 year old Finns. We still need a longer time perspective and future studies to see whether this favourable trend can be sustained in Finland. The actions of this implementation project can at least partly explain the differences in the mean waist circumference and the prevalence of morbid obesity between the intervention and control areas.
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To examine the association between sleep duration with type 2 diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance among middle-aged men and women in Finland.
The FIN-D2D survey is a population-based cross-sectional multicentre study in Finland, with 1336 men and 1434 women aged 45-74 participating in the survey during 2004 and 2005. A health examination including an oral glucose tolerance test and sleep questionnaire was performed for all participants.
There was an independent association between abnormal sleeping times and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. Even after adjustments for age, body mass index, sleep apnea probability, smoking, physical activity, and central nervous system-affecting medication, sleep duration of 6h or less or 8h or longer was independently associated with type 2 diabetes. There was no increase in the prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged men with abnormal sleeping times.
Short ( or = 8h) sleep duration is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women but not in men.
Lifestyle intervention is effective in prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk individuals. However, health behaviour and health outcomes are modified by socioeconomic position through various mechanisms. It is therefore possible that success in lifestyle intervention may be determined by factors such as level of education or occupation. In this study we assessed the impact of the level of education and occupation on the baseline anthropometric and clinical characteristics and their changes during a one-year follow-up in a cohort of Finnish men and women at high risk for T2D aged 20-64 years.
As part of a Finnish national diabetes prevention programme 2003-2007 (FIN-D2D), high-risk individuals were identified using opportunistic screening for lifestyle intervention in primary health care. 1,067 men and 2,122 women had one-year follow-up data. Education and occupation were used as factors of socioeconomic position. Measures of anthropometric and clinical characteristics included weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, FINDRISC scores and glucose tolerance status.
The effect of intervention was similar in all socioeconomic groups, but the level of education was related to glucose tolerance status in both genders. In addition, socioeconomic differences existed in blood pressure, weight, BMI, waist circumference and HDL cholesterol.
Socioeconomic position did not seem to have any impact on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in individuals at high risk for T2D, which is encouraging from the point of view of reducing health inequalities.
Most cohort studies have found depressive symptoms to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly, but follow-up times have often been short and study populations small.
To describe associations between stronger symptoms of depression and the risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD) or myocardial infarction (MI) in elderly Finnish subjects free of CHD at the baseline.
This study is a prospective population-based epidemiological and clinical twelve-year follow-up study in Lieto Health Centre, Finland. The basic population consisted of 1196 elderly (64 years of age or older) persons who lived in the municipality of Lieto in southwestern Finland in 1990. The occurrence of CHD was determined on the basis of electrocardiographic (ECG) findings, Rose questionnaire and the diagnoses in medical records. The persons with CHD were excluded from the study population. Symptoms of depression at the baseline were measured with the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Mortality was followed up for about 12 years.
The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed stronger symptoms of depression to be related to high risks of mortality from CHD or MI among men and women. According to the Cox model for men significant predictors for higher risk of CHD or MI mortality were stronger symptoms of depression, higher age and a large number of medications in use. When women were examined, significant predictors were stronger symptoms of depression and a large number of medications in use.
Stronger symptoms of depression are an independent risk factor for high CHD or MI mortality in aged Finnish men and women free of CHD at baseline.
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2008 May;11(2):5618441145
To study undiagnosed diseases in older people with and without dementia.
Cross-sectional population-based study in Lieto, southwestern Finland.
All the inhabitants aged 64 and more in Lieto. Participation rate was 82% (n = 1,260).
Dementia and its subtypes were diagnosed according to prevailing criteria. Medical conditions were assessed in clinical examinations and from medical records.
112 patients with dementia were found; 66% of them had at least 1 undiagnosed disease compared to 48% of the non-demented group (p = 0.041). The demented subjects had more undiagnosed hypercholesterolaemia (p = 0.039) and undiagnosed hypothyroidism (p = 0.032) than the controls.
Undiagnosing is more common among patients with dementia. Screening strategies should be developed further to find these patients.