A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P
Aim This study aimed to identify and reach consensus among primary health care participants [registered nurses (RNs) who receive clients, directors of nursing, senior physicians, health promotion officers, and local councillors] on the types of service provider that RNs who receive clients represent in the implementation of health promotion practices in primary health care in Eastern Finland.
There is an increasing focus on public health thinking in many countries as the population ages. To meet the growing needs of the health promotion practices of populations, advance practice has been recognized as effective in the primary health care setting. The advance practice nurses share many common features, such as being RNs with additional education, possessing competencies to work independently, treating clients in both acute and primary care settings, and applying a variety of health promotion practices into nursing.
The two-stage modified Delphi method was applied. In round one, semi-structured interviews were conducted among primary health care participants (n=42) in 11 health centres in Eastern Finland. In round two, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the same health centres. The questionnaire was answered by 64% of those surveyed (n=56). For data analysis, content analysis and descriptive statistics were used. Findings This study resulted in four types of service provider that RNs who receive clients represented in the implementation of health promotion practices in the primary health care setting in Eastern Finland. First, the client-oriented health promoter demonstrated four dimensions, which reached consensus levels ranging between 82.1 and 89.3%. Second, the developer of health promotion practices comprised four dimensions, which reached consensus levels between 71.4 and 85.7%. Third, the member of multi-professional teams of health promotion practices representing three dimensions, with consensus levels between 69.6 and 82.1%. Fourth, the type who showed interest towards health policy reached a consensus level of 55.4% in this study.
Assessment received by students affects the way that they conduct their studies and shapes their interests in clinical placements. It is therefore important that mentors and teachers have high quality assessment strategies to ensure the competence of nursing students.
The objective of this study is to describe the views and experiences of nursing students, nursing teachers, and mentors on the final assessment of nursing students in clinical practice. The study also investigates respondents' views on using a standardized national or European scheme for clinical assessment in the future.
Descriptive survey design with a questionnaire.
Implemented in five Finnish universities of applied sciences and in five partner hospitals.
Nursing students (n=276), nursing teachers (n=108) and mentors (n=225).
A questionnaire was used to collect data. Survey data were analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to characterize the data.
Nursing students felt that they had spent enough time with their mentors during their clinical practice period to ensure that the mentors could assess their behavior. Mentors also evaluated that they had spent enough time with the students. Students and mentors both indicated occasional difficulties with the language used in the competence assessment document. Most of the nursing students and mentors shared the view that it is always necessary for a teacher to be involved in the final assessment discussion.
The study highlights the importance of assessment skills of mentors and the important role of the teachers. Findings from this study indicate that nursing students' clinical practice assessment already includes many good practices, but we still have some difficulties in ensuring effective measures of competence.
To describe the experiences of maternity-care professionals using an Internet-based network service, called Net Clinic, and the opportunities and obstacles they encountered in Net Clinic while organising their work and developing their know-how.
Qualitative information gathered from semi-structured thematic interviews.
Four maternity care units in Eastern Finland (one antenatal ward in a university hospital, one antenatal ward in a central hospital, two maternity clinics in the community).
Five midwives, two public health nurses and three doctors.
All participants considered adequate privacy protection a prerequisite for development. They anticipated that because of their computer skills, young people would be able to use information and communication technology (ICT) as part of maternity-care services naturally. Managerial support, such as allocation of time and equipment, was extremely important during the introductory phase. The participants were divided into three groups based on their experiences of implementing Net Clinic: (1) 'doubters' did not believe in their own ICT competence and were afraid of using Net Clinic. They also showed resistance to Net Clinic. Doubters wanted versatile and personal guidance in ICT skills; (2) 'accepters' agreed that progress in ICT would inevitably affect their work. Development was considered difficult without awareness of the benefits of ICT, and Net Clinic was expected to increase their workload. Accepters preferred to have one-to-one ICT training; (3) 'future confidents' saw ICT as a useful tool for developing maternity care. They recognised the opportunities implicit in network collaboration and wanted versatile user training in ICT. They wanted successful network service models and were eager to develop them. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE: Families will increase their knowledge levels, as those who will be future parents are learning to use public network services at school. The increasing diversity of family structure will be a challenge to maternity care. Changes in maternity services can be accomplished with new e-Working models developed through diversified co-operation and with managerial support. The crucial question will be the attitude of maternity-care professionals towards Internet-based network service in their work.
To analyze patient safety incidents (PSIs) reported by patients and their use in Finnish healthcare organizations.
About 15 Finnish healthcare organizations ranging from specialized hospital care to home care, outpatient and inpatient clinics, and geographically diverse areas of Finland.
The study population included all Finnish patients who had voluntarily reported PSI via web-based system in 2009-15.
Quantitative analysis of patients' safety reports, inductive content analysis of patients' suggestions to prevent the reoccurrence incidents and how those suggestions were used in healthcare organizations.
Patients reported 656 PSIs, most of which were classified by the healthcare organizations' analysts as problems associated with information flow (32.6%) and medications (18%). Most of the incidents (65%) did not cause any harm to patients. About 76% of the reports suggested ways to prevent reoccurrence of PSIs, most of which were feasible, system-based amendments of processes for reviewing or administering treatment, anticipating risks or improving diligence in patient care. However, only 6% had led to practical implementation of corrective actions in the healthcare organizations.
The results indicate that patients report diverse PSIs and suggest practical systems-based solutions to prevent their reoccurrence. However, patients' reports rarely lead to corrective actions documented in the registering system, indicating that there is substantial scope to improve utilization of patients' reports. There is also a need for strong patient safety management, including willingness and commitment of HCPs and leaders to learn from safety incidents.
We examined patients' experiences of patient safety and participation in promoting safe care during their most recent care period. A survey of patients (N?=?175) revealed that treatment, medication, and device safety were mostly experienced as very good or excellent, but responses varied by age and experience. Patients ages 66-75 were most critical of treatment and medication safety. Device safety was rated the worst aspect of safety. Twenty percent of respondents had experienced errors at some time during their care. Patients who had experienced errors and those who were treated at inpatient wards versus a day surgery unit were most critical towards patient participation. Open and transparent error management involving patients is needed to promote treatment, medication, and especially device safety.
A variety of legislation, initiatives and organizations exist to support, encourage and even oblige schools to collaborate more effectively with parents or guardians. However, there is minimal understanding of the experiences and opinions of parents and school staff about their roles, especially in relation to children's health education. This study examined how parents of 10-11-year-old children perceive the roles of both home and school in educating children about health. A questionnaire, based partly on the Finnish national core curriculum for basic education, was administered to 348 parents; the response rate was 53%. Factor analysis was used to define sum variables, which were then used as dependent variables in an analysis of variance examining the effects of children's gender and health; parents' education, gender, work status and year of birth; and school location (urban/rural). The results suggested that parents considered that either health education was mainly their responsibility, or it was a mutual responsibility with the school. Parents living in rural areas and the youngest group of parents were more likely to consider that health education should be shared with schools than were parents living in cities, or older parents. To expand awareness about the role of home and school in children's health education and to develop further health promotion within the whole school community, it is important to gather parents' views regarding health issues. This study was conducted as part of a broader program in the health promotion network of the Schools for Health in Europe (SHE).
The aims of this study were to identify and reach consensus among municipal primary health care participants on nurse practitioners' (NPs') required case management competencies in health promotion practices in eastern Finland.
The NP's role as a case manager of patients with chronic conditions has been found to have positive outcomes in health promotion, such as reduced hospital lengths of stay and readmission rates. However, the challenging work of health promotion requires NPs to have multidimensional competencies in health promotion, including communication, advocacy, assessment, planning, consultation and implementation.
A two-stage modified Delphi study.
Round 1 semi-structured interviews were conducted among municipal primary health care participants (n = 42) in 11 health centres from April-July 2009, and the round 2 questionnaire survey was conducted in the same health centres in eastern Finland in January and March 2011. The questionnaire was answered by 64% of those surveyed (n = 56). Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis.
We identified a total of 18 required case management competencies for NPs' health promotion practices in municipal primary health care. In 17 of these competencies (such as knowledge, skills and ability to work independently in health promotion), a consensus was reached (51% or over). However, the need to be interested in municipal decision-making (44·6%) did not reach consensus.
Consensus was clearly achieved for 17 competencies that NPs were required to have, and these indicated the knowledge or abilities of health promotion. Nevertheless, there was no agreement on the NPs' need to be interested in municipal decision-making.
NPs need a variety of case management skills and abilities to realise health promotion in municipal primary health care and they need to be supported by primary health care leaders to develop health promotion activities.
The purpose of this study was to elicit critical incidents that illustrate the reality in which health promotion processes take place in the Finnish European Network of Health Promoting Schools (ENHPS). In this study, critical incidents were used as a data collection method. The data were collected by asking representatives (n = 30) of the schools to describe in writing both positive and negative critical incidents related to health promotion in their school community. Altogether 48 critical incidents were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that collaboration in a network of participants from inside and outside the school community to plan and implement a special school health day was the most commonly described positive critical incident. In addition, the organizational culture of the schools seemed to improve in a positive way. The reorganization of resources for health promotion resulted in positive progress, whereas a lack of resources had a frustrating and negative effect. The most commonly described negative critical incident was a failure to discourage smoking by pupils.
This paper describes occupational health nurses' and school staff members' experiences of work ability maintenance carried out at schools and the development of ideas to promote the collaboration between occupational health care and school community and to enhance work ability maintenance. The data were collected in a baseline situation of an action research project to further plan and develop activities. The data were analysed by inductive content analysis. According to the results, school community staff members' work ability maintenance focused on the employee, the school community, school work and the working conditions as well as professional competence. The practical actions involved some individual and school-specific variation, focusing on actions to maintain individual and physical work ability. It seems that the collaboration between the school community and occupational health service for work ability maintenance took place at the individual level, but an obvious need for more structural collaboration emerged by several suggestions made by the participants (e.g. better information exchange between the school and occupational health care, improved collaboration between the school staff and the co-operative partners). The progress in collaboration may lead towards spontaneous collaboration, in which case both actors have the same target and work in a planned, continuous and natural way to ensure work ability maintenance in the school community.