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Coexisting social conditions and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use in Finland: the HUUTI study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114452
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:380
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Ifeoma N Onyeka
Caryl M Beynon
Hanna Uosukainen
Maarit Jaana Korhonen
Jenni Ilomäki
J Simon Bell
Mika Paasolainen
Niko Tasa
Jari Tiihonen
Jussi Kauhanen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P,O,Box 1627, Kuopio, FI, 70211, Finland. Ifeoma.onyeka@uef.fi
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:380
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Questionnaires
Social Problems - statistics & numerical data
Street Drugs
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - utilization
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Abstract
Illicit drug use is an important public health problem. Identifying conditions that coexist with illicit drug use is necessary for planning health services. This study described the prevalence and factors associated with social and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use.
We carried out cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of 2526 clients who sought treatment for illicit drug use at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. At the clients' first visit, trained clinicians conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with social and health problems.
The mean age of the clients was 25 years, 21% (n?=?519) were homeless, 54% (n?=?1363) were unemployed and 7% (n?=?183) had experienced threats of violence. Half of the clients (50%, n?=?1258) were self-referred and 31% (n?=?788) used opiates as their primary drugs of abuse. Hepatitis C (25%, n?=?630) was more prevalent than other infectious diseases and depressive symptoms (59%, n?=?1490) were the most prevalent psychological problems. Clients who were self-referred to treatment were most likely than others to report social problems (AOR?=?1.86; 95% CI?=?1.50-2.30) and psychological problems (AOR?=?1.51; 95% CI?=?1.23-1.85). Using opiates as primary drugs of abuse was the strongest factor associated with infectious diseases (AOR?=?3.89; 95% CI?=?1.32-11.46) and for reporting a combination of social and health problems (AOR?=?3.24; 95% CI?=?1.58-6.65).
The existence of illicit drug use with other social and health problems could lead to increased utilisation and cost of healthcare services. Coexisting social and health problems may interfere with clients' treatment response. Our findings support the call for integration of relevant social, medical and mental health support services within drug treatment programmes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23617549 View in PubMed
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Community pharmacy services for drug misuse: attitudes and practices of Finnish pharmacists.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265962
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2014 Nov;25(6):1139-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014

The effect of an electronic medicine dispenser on diversion of buprenorphine-naloxone-experience from a medium-sized Finnish city.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116110
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Jul;45(1):143-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Hanna Uosukainen
Hannu Pentikäinen
Ulrich Tacke
Author Affiliation
University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. hanna.uosukainen@uef.fi
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Jul;45(1):143-7
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Buprenorphine - administration & dosage
Crime - prevention & control
Drug Storage
Equipment Design
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Naloxone - administration & dosage
Needle-Exchange Programs
Opiate Substitution Treatment - methods
Opioid-Related Disorders - rehabilitation
Questionnaires
Substance Abuse Detection
Tablets
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Providing unobserved opioid substitution treatment (OST) safely is a major challenge. This study examined whether electronic medicine dispensers (EMDs) can reduce diversion of take-home buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) in a medium-sized Finnish city. All BNX treated OST patients in Kuopio received their take-home BNX in EMDs for 4months. EMDs' effect on diversion was investigated using questionnaires completed by patients (n=37) and treatment staff (n=19), by survey at the local needle exchange service and by systematic review of drug screen data from the Kuopio University Hospital. The majority of patients (n=21, 68%) and treatment staff (n=11, 58%) preferred to use EMDs for the safe storage of tablets. Five patients (16%) declared that EMDs had prevented them from diverting BNX. However, EMDs had no detectable effect on the availability or origin of illegal BNX or on the hospital-treated buprenorphine-related health problems. EMDs may improve the safety of storage of take-home BNX, but their ability to prevent diversion needs further research.
PubMed ID
23433750 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with buprenorphine compared to amphetamine abuse among clients seeking treatment in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263255
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2014 May-Jun;46(5):561-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Hanna Uosukainen
Jenni Ilomäki
Jussi Kauhanen
Ulrich Tacke
Jaana Föhr
Jari Tiihonen
J Simon Bell
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2014 May-Jun;46(5):561-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Amphetamine-Related Disorders - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Buprenorphine - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Prescription Drug Misuse - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Young Adult
Abstract
Abuse of prescription opioids is becoming increasingly widespread. This study compared the social, health and treatment-related factors associated with buprenorphine and amphetamine abuse in Finland. Structured clinical interviews were conducted with clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine (n=670) or amphetamine (n=557) abuse in Helsinki from January 2001 to August 2008. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for factors associated with buprenorphine compared to amphetamine abuse. In multivariate analyses, buprenorphine abuse was associated with male gender (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17-2.09), daily abuse (OR 5.45, 95% CI 4.14-7.18), no drug free months during the last year (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.23-2.29), and inversely associated with increasing age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.97 per year) and psychotic symptoms (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.24-0.45). Despite more intense abuse patterns, clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse shared similar characteristics to amphetamine clients. These characteristics were different to characteristics of those who abuse prescription opioids in North America. This is important for developing and targeting intervention programs.
PubMed ID
24560129 View in PubMed
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First insights into community pharmacy based buprenorphine-naloxone dispensing in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114899
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Sep;24(5):492-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Hanna Uosukainen
J Simon Bell
Kirsti Laitinen
Ulrich Tacke
Jenni Ilomäki
Juha H O Turunen
Author Affiliation
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: hanna.uosukainen@uef.fi.
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Sep;24(5):492-7
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Buprenorphine - therapeutic use
Community Pharmacy Services - organization & administration
Finland
Humans
Naloxone - therapeutic use
Opiate Substitution Treatment - methods
Opioid-Related Disorders - drug therapy
Abstract
Finnish community pharmacies have been permitted to dispense buprenorphine-naloxone since February 2008. This study explored the dispensing practices, service experiences, problems encountered and opportunities for future development.
In August 2011, a questionnaire was mailed to all Finnish community pharmacies dispensing buprenorphine-naloxone (n=69).
Sixty-four pharmacies responded (93%), of which 54 had dispensed buprenorphine-naloxone to 155 clients since 2008. Forty-eight pharmacies had 108 current clients (10% of all buprenorphine-naloxone clients in Finland). Overall satisfaction with buprenorphine-naloxone dispensing was high, with all respondents indicating dispensing had gone 'well' or 'very well'. Fourteen pharmacies (26%) had experienced one or more problems, predominately in relation timing or non-collection of doses. Problems were more common in pharmacies with more than one buprenorphine-naloxone client (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.86). Most pharmacies (n=43, 80%) identified opportunities for improvement, including the need for more education and financial remuneration. Forty-six pharmacies (85%) were willing to dispense buprenorphine-naloxone to more clients; however, 43 pharmacies (80%) perceived that supervision of buprenorphine-naloxone dosing is not a suitable task for pharmacists in Finland.
Provision of buprenorphine-naloxone in Finnish community pharmacies has remained relatively small-scale. As experiences have been generally positive and problems rare, it may be possible to expand these services.
PubMed ID
23567099 View in PubMed
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Mortality among clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108381
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Dec 1;133(2):391-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2013
Author
Hanna Uosukainen
Jussi Kauhanen
J Simon Bell
Kimmo Ronkainen
Jari Tiihonen
Jaana Föhr
Ifeoma N Onyeka
Maarit J Korhonen
Author Affiliation
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: hanna.uosukainen@uef.fi.
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Dec 1;133(2):391-7
Date
Dec-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Age Factors
Buprenorphine
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Narcotics
Opioid-Related Disorders - mortality
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Survival Analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
It is unclear whether buprenorphine abuse is associated with a similar risk of death to other substance abuse. This study examined all-cause mortality rates and causes of deaths among clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse.
Structured clinical interviews were conducted with 4685 clients between January 1998 and August 2008. Records of deaths that occurred among these clients were extracted from the Official Causes of Death Register in Finland. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using national mortality rates over a 13-year follow-up to examine excess mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare survival between buprenorphine and other clients.
Sixty-one of 780 (7.8%) clients who sought treatment for buprenorphine abuse and 408 of 3905 (10.4%) other clients died during the 13-year follow-up period. The most common cause of death was drug-related in buprenorphine (n=25, 41.0%) and other clients (n=142, 34.8%). Survival rates were similar among buprenorphine and other clients (log-rank ?[df=1](2)=0.215, p=0.643). The SMR was 3.0 (95% CI 2.3-3.8) and 3.1 (95% CI 2.8-3.4) for buprenorphine and other clients, respectively. Excess mortality was highest among women aged 20-29 years, and more pronounced in buprenorphine clients (SMR 27.9 [95% CI 12.6-49.0]) compared to other clients (SMR 14.0 [95% CI 9.3-19.6]).
Clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse had a three times higher mortality rate than the national average, with the excess risk highest among female clients. Overall mortality rates were similar among clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine and other substance abuse.
PubMed ID
23896305 View in PubMed
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Sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of treatment-seeking illicit drug abusers in Finland, 1997-2008: the Huuti study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118024
Source
J Addict Dis. 2012;31(4):350-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ifeoma N Onyeka
Hanna Uosukainen
Maarit Jaana Korhonen
Caryl Beynon
J Simon Bell
Kimmo Ronkainen
Jaana Föhr
Jari Tiihonen
Jussi Kauhanen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. ifeoma.onyeka@uef.fi
Source
J Addict Dis. 2012;31(4):350-62
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Transmission, Infectious - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Risk-Taking
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - utilization
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Young Adult
Abstract
The epidemiological part of the Huume tietokanta (HUUTI) consortium research project is the first large-scale longitudinal study of treatment-seeking illicit drug abusers in Finland. The objective of this report was to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of treatment-seeking clients at their first visit. This study analysed baseline data of 4817 clients (3365 men and 1452 women) aged 11-65 years who sought treatment for drug abuse between 1997 and 2008 at Helsinki Deaconess Institute. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The majority (56%) of clients were between 15 and 24 years, educated at elementary school level (75%), and unemployed (57%). Opiates (30%) were the primary drugs of abuse. The primary drugs were mostly injected (45%) and were abused daily during the past month (44%). Cannabis was the most common secondary drug of abuse (34%). The secondary drugs were predominantly smoked (39%) or taken orally (38%) and were abused once per week or less frequently during the past month (33%). Age at initiation of illicit drug abuse ranged from 5 to 49 years. Polydrug abuse was common, with a mean consumption of 3.5 concurrent polydrug use, which were combined from 3 or more drug classes. The prevalence of lifetime/ever intravenous drug abuse was 64% and past month intravenous drug abuse was 64%, respectively, and 13% reported sharing injecting equipment during the past month. Early initiation, polydrug abuse, and risky consumption of illicit drugs were major areas of concern among the study population. Injecting drug use could place considerable burden on health services in view of complications and transmission of infectious diseases.
PubMed ID
23244554 View in PubMed
Less detail

Twelve-year trend in treatment seeking for buprenorphine abuse in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122223
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jan 1;127(1-3):207-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2013
Author
Hanna Uosukainen
Jussi Kauhanen
Sari Voutilainen
Jaana Föhr
Mika Paasolainen
Jari Tiihonen
Kirsti Laitinen
Ifeoma N Onyeka
J Simon Bell
Author Affiliation
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. hanna.uosukainen@uef.fi
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jan 1;127(1-3):207-14
Date
Jan-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Buprenorphine
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Opiate Substitution Treatment - trends
Opioid-Related Disorders - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Self Report
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Buprenorphine abuse is becoming increasingly common worldwide. However, large-scale long-term studies of buprenorphine abuse are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the trend in characteristics of clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse and compare them to those seeking treatment for heroin and amphetamine abuse.
A 12-year descriptive study was conducted at the Helsinki Deaconess Institute (HDI), a public utility foundation responsible for providing treatment for substance abuse in the greater Helsinki area. All clients seeking treatment between 31 January 1997 and 31 August 2008 received a structured clinical interview concerning demographic characteristics and abuse patterns. Characteristics of clients who reported that their primary drug of abuse was buprenorphine (n=780) were compared to those whose primary drug of abuse was either heroin (n=598) or amphetamine (n=1249).
The annual proportion of buprenorphine clients increased from 3.0% in 1998 to 38.4% in 2008. Daily abuse (73.8%) and intravenous administration (80.6%) were common among buprenorphine clients. Concurrent abuse of prescription medications (p
PubMed ID
22835477 View in PubMed
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Use of strong opioids among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137791
Source
Pain. 2011 Mar;152(3):543-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
J Simon Bell
Marja-Liisa Laitinen
Piia Lavikainen
Eija Lönnroos
Hanna Uosukainen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. simon.bell@uef.fi
Source
Pain. 2011 Mar;152(3):543-7
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology
Analgesics, Opioid - therapeutic use
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Insurance, Health - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Pain - drug therapy - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the national pattern of strong opioid use among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Finland. All persons (n=28,093) with a diagnosis of AD in 2005 were identified by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (SII). For each person with AD, the SII identified a comparison person individually matched in terms of age (?1year), sex, and region of residence. Records of all reimbursed drug purchases in 2005 were extracted from the Finnish National Prescription Register. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for reimbursed opioid use. The age of the persons with and without AD ranged from 42 to 101 (mean 80.0) years, with men comprising 32.2% (n=9048) of persons. The annual prevalence of reimbursed opioid use was 3.0% (n=273) and 3.8% (n=727) among men and women with AD, respectively. The use of all reimbursed opioids was lower among persons with AD compared with those without AD (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.84). The use of strong opioids (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.51) and fentanyl (adjusted OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.83) was higher among persons with AD. Our study did not assess the stage or severity of AD, nor the opioid doses prescribed. However, the results highlight the challenges associated with diagnosing and treating pain in this population, and the importance of balancing the risk of adverse drug reactions against the ease of transdermal administration. Use of opioid analgesics was lower among 28,089 persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with individually matched comparison persons without AD. However, use of strong opioids and transdermal fentanyl was more prevalent among persons with AD.
PubMed ID
21247697 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.