PURPOSE: The aim of the present investigation was to perform an international multicenter comparison of dental appearance as evaluated by dentists, dental technicians, and nondental subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants were drawn from three groups: 203 dentists, 197 dental technicians and 254 nondental subjects. The methods developed in a previous study in Sweden were applied again in seven centers located in six countries. A questionnaire, accompanied by five sets of computer-manipulated images portraying one man and one woman, was used to prompt and record responses to different aspects of dental appearance and function. RESULTS: The questionnaire revealed that both the dental appearance and function of teeth were important to most of the participants, but three quarters of the participants did indicate that good dental function was more important that esthetics. More women (30%) than men (18%), however, placed greater importance on appearance. Age or gender did not influence judgments of the computer-manipulated images, although judgments did vary greatly within the three groups and between the centers. Nonetheless, highly colored teeth were preferred more often by nondental subjects than by dentists or dental technicians. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided image manipulation shows promise as a method for investigating the significance of dental-related beliefs, especially those relating to esthetics, in different population groups. The evaluation of dental appearance and function in this study indicated that dental function is held in greater regard, and that the significance of dental appearance varies widely among dentists, dental technicians, and nondental subjects.
Our aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal radiographic findings in mandibular condyles and the possible association between such findings and clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) and dental state. Two cohorts of 70-year-old people, 384 men and 484 women, living in G?teborg, Sweden, participated in the study. The first cohort was examined in 1972 and the other one in 1992. Besides a functional and clinical examination, a questionnaire on TMD and panoramic radiography were included. A deviation from the normal appearance of one or both condyles was found in 26% of the subjects (17% of the condyles). There was no significant difference in this respect between the two cohorts. There were in general only minor and no statistically significant differences between those with normal and deviating condylar findings with regard to various TMD signs and symptoms. The subjects in Eichner group A (with dental support in all zones) showed a slightly lower frequency of abnormal radiographic condylar findings (22%) than those in groups B (reduced dental support) and C (edentulous in one or both jaws; both B and C, 28%). It is concluded that abnormal radiographic condylar findings in these elderly people were not at all or only weakly correlated with signs and symptoms of TMD and dental status.
Sarcoidosis is a heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic influence. Genetic factors are also thought to influence disease severity and outcome. We sought to determine whether polymorphisms within CCR2 gene predispose to L?fgren's syndrome--a clinically and genetically distinct sarcoidosis phenotype--and, importantly, whether this association is independent of the known association with the HLA-DRB1*0301 allele.
We investigated 5 CCR2 variants and HLA-DRB1*0301 by sequence-specific primer (SSP) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 176 Spanish (76 L?fgren's syndrome, 100 controls) and 387 Swedish subjects (126 L?fgren's syndrome, 77 non-L?fgren sarcoidosis, 184 controls).
One of the deduced haplotypes (CCR2 haplotype 2) was associated with L?fgren's syndrome in both Spanish (OR: 2.03, uncorrected P = 0.02; permuted P = 0.041 vs. controls) and Swedish patients (OR: 3.02, uncorrected P = 0.0007; permuted P = 0.0027 vs. non-L?fgren sarcoidosis; OR: 2.46, uncorrected P = 0.0005; permuted P = 0.0031 vs. controls). HLA-DRB1*0301 allele frequency was also increased in Spanish (OR: 3.52, P = 0.0004 vs. controls) and Swedish patients with L?fgren's syndrome (OR: 10.98, P
The present study was designed to confirm the usefulness of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing strokes of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, hepatocellular carcinoma and hydronephrosis of each experimental rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-500 g), male SHRSP (ca. 250 g) and male F344 rats (ca. 300 g) were used for the investigation. Gadodiamide injection (Omniscan, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Nycomed AS, Norway) was administered intravenously as the contrast agent at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg except in hydronephrosis, where a dose of 0.05 mmol/kg was used. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained with a 1.5T or a 2.0T magnetic field strength MRI unit. The signal intensity of the stroke lesions was increased after administration of gadodiamide injection in SHRSP and MCA-occluded rats. Hepatocellular carcinoma was undetectable without the use of the contrast agent, but the signal intensity of the tumor increased after administration of the gadodiamide injection, allowing the lesions to be detected. The signal intensity of the renal medulla increased in the non-ligated kidney, but not in the hydronephrotic kidney. The information given by the post-contrast images were superior to those obtained from the pre-contrast images in all the models. Contrast effects in SHRSP and MCA-occluded rats were related to differences in capillary permeability, those in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma depended on differences in vascularity, and those in hydronephrotic rats depended on blood flow and permeability.
Measurements of 137Cs body burden were carried out in 1991-1996 for children residing in the western part of Bryansk Oblast (Russia) where area contamination with 137Cs following the Chernobyl accident varied from 0.03-3.7 MBq m(-2). The mean and median values of 137Cs specific activity (SA) in the bodies of children 5-15 y old for the whole period of surveillance averaged for 26,029 measurements was 85 Bq kg(-1) and 49 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Mean values in different places of residence varied from 30-342 Bq kg(-1) for the settlements where the number of examinees was not less than 50. There is a moderately strong relationship between mean SA in the settlement and the level of area contamination with 137Cs. A strong seasonal effect on 137Cs body burden was found. The ratio of average SA values is 1:1.75 for spring to autumn 1992-1995 in the settlement where the largest number of children was examined. This effect might be attributed to a seasonal change in diet. Based on questionnaire information on individual consumption of locally produced foods, the descending rank of contribution of food items to 137Cs intake by children was found to be: meat-mushrooms-milk-vegetables. Assuming that the dose distribution would follow the distribution of SA values, internal doses to the whole body from ingested 137Cs were assessed. The mean value of annual internal dose averaged for the whole set of measurements is 0.21 mSv, and the median of the individual dose distribution is 0.12 mSv y(-1) For 2% of the total sample the annual dose exceeded 1 mSv, with the highest individual dose being 9 mSv in 1994 for a 7-y-old girl.