The effect of inorganic acid fumes from the work environment on the erosion of teeth was studied blindly. A sample of 186 workers was drawn from four factories. Among the 157 dentulous participants, 76 were working in departments containing acid fumes, and 81 had never worked under such conditions and were used as referents. Of the acid workers 18.4% had one or more teeth with erosion, and the corresponding figure for the referents was 8.6%. With a longer duration of exposure the proportion of subjects with erosion increased. The acid workers had more teeth with erosion than the referents, especially upper anterior teeth. The findings suggest that even today exposure to inorganic acid fumes from the work environment may increase the erosion of teeth, especially the upper anterior teeth, which are not continuously protected by saliva and the lips.
With 852 victims from 17 different countries, the sinking of the Estonia was Europe's most severe passenger ferry disaster. The Finnish Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) team identified all 93 victims recovered from the sea within 33 days of the accident as well as victim number 94 found 18 months later. Dental identification was established in 57 cases (60%).
International collaboration in mass disasters involving foreign nationals within the EU: medico-legal investigation of Finnish victims of the Milan Linate airport SAS SK 686 aircraft accident on 8 October 2001.
Identification of and investigation into the cause of death of foreign nationals in mass disasters are generally conducted according to the jurisdiction of the country in which the disaster occurs. However, such identification can be achieved only through co-operation with the authorities of the victims' countries of residence. On October 8th 2001 at Linate airport in Milan, Italy, an MD87 SAS airplane with 110 crew members and passengers on board collided on the ground with a Cessna Citation II jet with 2 pilots and 2 passengers. The plane then caught fire after having crashed into an airport baggage hangar causing the death of 4 other victims among the groundstaff. The accident claimed a total of 118 victims of 9 nationalities. Based on our experience from investigation of the Finnish victims, we explore how current national legislations of the EU member states and varying compliance with existing recommendations may influence the medico-legal investigation of a mass disaster. Legislative measures and further harmonisation of medico-legal procedures in connection with mass disasters within the EU are needed.