This paper describes an effort to standardize the long term archiving format of the electronic patient record. A format is given in SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and also tested as a prototype in a production system.
The introduction of a national process to match Canadian medical students to postgraduate year-one (PGY-1) positions in psychiatry created for the first time a cohort of subjects whose choices of a particular training program could be evaluated and compared with American peers. The primary goal of this study was to determine the factors affecting the students' selection of the specific postgraduate programs in which they would train and to compare the findings with those in the American literature.
A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 110 trainees who began training in July 1994 identified in the 16 Canadian university departments of psychiatry.
Canadian trainees, like their American counterparts, relied heavily on nonprogrammatic factors in program choice, but differed in emphasizing vocational prospects after residency.
When competing for enrollment within a reduced pool of applicants, program directors need to recognize how programs are evaluated, what factors are controllable, and how best to market the individual assets of their programs.
The presence of a national cohort of trainees entering psychiatric residency allowed an assessment of contemporary factors influencing their particular program choices. Factors of specific interest included the effect on program choice of relationships with significant others and government attitudes to fiscal restraint, mental health care reform, and licensure.
A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 110 trainees identified in the 16 Canadian university departments of psychiatry who began training in July 1994.
While a committed relationship was a primary determinant of program choice, government policies attempting to influence patterns of care had little effect.
A strong commitment to undergraduate teaching will improve the attractiveness of psychiatry as a career. This must include exposure of students to teachers who mentor practice patterns attuned to provincial mental health reforms, since government initiatives alone, developed to promote desired transitions in psychiatric care, will not influence training program choice.
This study analyzed the effect of breast-feeding on the frequency of acute otitis media. The protocol was designed to examine each child at 2, 6 and 10 months of age. At each visit nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained, the feeding pattern was recorded and the acute otitis media (AOM) episodes were documented. The analysis was based on 400 children from whom complete information was obtained. They represented 83% of the newborns in the study areas. By 1 year of age 85 (21%) children had experienced 111 AOM episodes; 63 (16%) had 1 and 22 (6%) had 2 or more episodes. The AOM frequency was significantly lower in the breast-fed than in the non-breast-fed children in each age group (P
The rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) gene has been suggested to associate with general hypertension and is therefore a plausible functional candidate gene for pre-eclampsia. ROCK2 maps to chromosome 2p25, which we have implicated previously in a linkage study of pre-eclampsia. We have re-sequenced exons and putative promoter region of ROCK2 in up to 30 pre-eclampsia patients and 22 controls and genotyped putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as tagging SNPs from HapMap in a Finnish case-control data set-340 affected and 357 matched control individuals-for a genetic association study of ROCK2 in pre-eclampsia. Even though several new SNPs were discovered, we did not detect significant allelic or haplotypic association between ROCK2 and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ROCK2 expression in placentas by microarray analysis, but no significant expression differences were observed when comparing preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. We conclude that common genetic variation in ROCK2 is unlikely to make a major contribution to the risk of pre-eclampsia, but cannot exclude the possibility of having missed non-coding functional variants or rare coding variants.
Mixing models are a common method for quantifying the contribution of prey sources to the diet of an individual using stable isotope analysis; however, these models rely upon a known trophic discrimination factor (hereafter, TDF) that results from fractionation between prey and animal tissues. Quantifying TDFs in captive animals is ideal, because diet is controlled and the proportional contributions and isotopic values of all prey items are known.
To calculate TDFs for the Hawaiian monk seal, northern elephant seal, bearded seal, ringed seal, spotted seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, we obtained whiskers, serum, plasma, red blood cells, and prey items from nine captive individuals. We obtained d(13) C and d(15) N values using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The average d(13) C and d(15) N values from bulk and lipid-corrected prey from the diet were subtracted from the d(13) C and d(15) N values of each blood and whisker sample to calculate tissue-specific TDFs for each individual (?(13) C or ?(15) N).
The ?(13) C values ranged from +1.7 to +3.2‰ (bulk prey) and from +0.8 to +1.9‰ (lipid-corrected prey) for the various blood components, and from +3.9 to +4.6‰ (bulk prey) or +2.6 to +3.9‰ (lipid-corrected prey) for whiskers. The ?(15) N values ranged from +2.2 to +4.3‰ for blood components and from +2.6 to +4.0‰ for whiskers. The TDFs tended to group by tissue, with whiskers having greater ?(13) C values than blood components. In contrast, the ?(15) N values were greater in serum and plasma than in red blood cells and whiskers.