Judicious food choices are of prime importance during aging.
This study was conducted to identify individual and collective attributes determining global diet quality (DQ).
Participants were 1,793 adults (52% women) from the NuAge study on nutrition and successful aging. Subjects aged 67 to 84 years in relatively good health were recruited from the Québec Medicare Database. Sociodemographic, affective, and cognitive data, health conditions, perceived physical health and functional status, dietary habits and dietary attributes and community resources were obtained using questionnaires. Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were collected at recruitment. DQ, assessed using the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, /100), was computed on the mean intakes from the diet recalls. Analyses were stratified by gender. Variables significantly related to DQ in bivariate analyses (p
Day-to-day variability in dietary intake makes it difficult to measure accurately the "usual" intake of foods and nutrients. The objectives of the present study were to estimate within- and between-subject variability for foods and nutrients by adjusted and unadjusted models and to assess the number of days required to assess nutrient and food group intakes accurately by two different methods. Adult men and women aged 18-65 y (n = 1543) in the Food Habits of Canadians Study provided a 24-h recall. A repeat interview was conducted in a subsample to estimate components of variability. Within- and between-subject variability were determined by mixed model procedure (crude and adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, family size and season). The number of days required to obtain various degrees of accuracy was ascertained by two methods, one that uses the variance ratio for groups and one that considers within-subject variability alone for individuals. Variance ratios were higher using the adjusted compared with the unadjusted method (e.g., for men, energy 1.07 vs. 0.49). More days were required to reflect usual intake with accuracy using the adjusted model (energy 5 vs. 2 d), indicating the need to control for confounders to obtain reliable estimates of intakes.
The purpose of nutrition screening is to identify individuals at high nutritional risk. Given that dietitians cannot always carry out screening in health-care facilities, tools should be simple and based on data obtained from the nursing admission questionnaire. This study was conducted to develop timely and valid tools for screening protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). A dietetic technician administered an initial screening tool to 160 subjects recruited from two settings. This tool comprised nine PEM risk factors. The sample included 54 adults in acute care, 57 elderly adults in acute care, and 49 elderly adults in long-term care. Dietitians performed comprehensive nutritional assessments to determine the validity of this screening tool. Stepwise regression analysis revealed significant risk factors among those included in the initial screening. These risk factors were considered during development of the first simple screening tool, which encompassed body mass index (BMI) and percentage of weight loss, and classified subjects as having low or high PEM risk levels. A second tool using BMI and albumin level was tested in cases where an albumin measurement was available upon admission. These simple tools had validity indices of 75.9% or higher, except in adults in acute care; sensitivity was low in this group. The tools proved helpful in establishing dietitians' priorities for involvement and in initiating early nutritional care.
This study was conducted to assess the validity and the reliability of simple tools to screen the protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) risk among the elderly population in healthcare facilities. An initial screening tool, made up of nine PEM risk factors, was previously developed to be validated. This tool was quite complex and showed low validity results. A stepwise regression analysis determined significant risk factors (P