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A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272273
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
M. Myrmel
H. Lange
E. Rimstad
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoviridae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Environmental monitoring
Genotype
Hepatitis E virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Human bocavirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Norovirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Norway
Phylogeny
Seasons
Sewage - virology
Water Pollution
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and bocavirus, respectively. The level of hepatitis E virus was not determined as it was below the limit of quantification. The mean log10 virus reduction was 0.55 (plant A) and 1.44 (plant B) with the highest reduction found in the plant with longer hydraulic retention time. The adenoviruses were dominantly serotype 41, while serotype 12 appeared sporadically. Of the 102 raw and treated sewage samples that were tested, eight were positive for hepatitis E virus of which four were from treated sewage. Two of the four obtained gene sequences from hepatitis E virus originated from the rural sewage samples and showed high similarity with a genotype 3 strain of hepatitis E virus detected in local piglets. Two other hepatitis E virus sequences obtained from urban sewage samples showed high similarities with genotype 3 strains isolated from urban sewage in Spain and a human genotype 1 isolate from India. The study gives information on the levels of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage, which is valuable to risk assessment, information indicating that some infections with hepatitis E viruses in Norway have a regional origin and that human bocavirus 2 and 3 are prevalent in the Norwegian population.
PubMed ID
26003323 View in PubMed
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Hepatitis E in Norway: seroprevalence in humans and swine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283618
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Jan;145(1):181-186
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
H. Lange
J. Øverbø
K. Borgen
S. Dudman
G. Hoddevik
A M Urdahl
L. Vold
S K Sjurseth
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Jan;145(1):181-186
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Hepatitis Antibodies - blood
Hepatitis E - epidemiology - veterinary
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Surveys and Questionnaires
Swine
Swine Diseases - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
In Norway, no published data on seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in humans and swine exists. Serum samples from blood donors, veterinarians, swine farm workers and swine were analysed by ELISA to estimate the seroprevalence of HEV in Norway and to investigate the association between direct contact with swine and HEV seroprevalence in humans. The seroprevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was 30% (24/79) in farm workers, 13% (21/163) in veterinarians, 14% (162/1200) in blood donors and 90% (137/153) in swine. Our results show a high seroprevalence of HEV in humans and swine in Norway. HEV seroprevalence in farm workers and blood donors increased with age, and veterinarians working with swine were twice as likely to be HEV seropositive compared to other veterinarians. High HEV seroprevalence in farm workers and veterinarians working with swine support previous reports suggesting swine as a reservoir for HEV infections in humans in Europe.
PubMed ID
27671461 View in PubMed
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The national web-based outbreak rapid alert system in Norway: eight years of experience, 2006-2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270998
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Jan;144(1):215-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
B. Guzman-Herrador
L. Vold
T. Berg
T M Berglund
B. Heier
G. Kapperud
H. Lange
K. Nygård
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Jan;144(1):215-24
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Drinking Water
Epidemiological Monitoring
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Internet
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Abstract
In 2005, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health established a web-based outbreak rapid alert system called Vesuv. The system is used for mandatory outbreak alerts from municipal medical officers, healthcare institutions, and food safety authorities. As of 2013, 1426 outbreaks have been reported, involving 32913 cases. More than half of the outbreaks occurred in healthcare institutions (759 outbreaks, 53·2%). A total of 474 (33·2%) outbreaks were associated with food or drinking water. The web-based rapid alert system has proved to be a helpful tool by enhancing reporting and enabling rapid and efficient information sharing between different authorities at both the local and national levels. It is also an important tool for event-based reporting, as required by the International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005. Collecting information from all the outbreak alerts and reports in a national database is also useful for analysing trends, such as occurrence of certain microorganisms, places or sources of infection, or route of transmission. This can facilitate the identification of specific areas where more general preventive measures are needed.
PubMed ID
26028358 View in PubMed
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Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283322
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Oct;144(13):2765-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
M. Einöder-Moreno
H. Lange
M. Grepp
E. Osborg
K. Vainio
L. Vold
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Oct;144(13):2765-72
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Cohort Studies
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Food Microbiology
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - virology
Frozen Foods - virology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norovirus - physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Rubus - virology
Young Adult
Abstract
In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.
PubMed ID
26878755 View in PubMed
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No progressive brain changes during a 1-year follow-up of patients with first-episode psychosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276617
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb;46(3):589-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
U K Haukvik
C B Hartberg
S. Nerland
K N Jørgensen
E H Lange
C. Simonsen
R. Nesvåg
A M Dale
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
I. Agartz
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb;46(3):589-98
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Bipolar Disorder - drug therapy - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Cerebral Cortex - pathology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychotic Disorders - drug therapy - pathology
Schizophrenia - drug therapy - pathology
Young Adult
Abstract
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show structural brain abnormalities. Whether the changes are progressive or not remain under debate, and the results from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are mixed. We investigated if FEP patients showed a different pattern of regional brain structural change over a 1-year period compared with healthy controls, and if putative changes correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome.
MRIs of 79 FEP patients [SCID-I-verified diagnoses: schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder, or other psychoses, mean age 27.6 (s.d. = 7.7) years, 66% male] and 82 healthy controls [age 29.3 (s.d. = 7.2) years, 66% male] were acquired from the same 1.5 T scanner at baseline and 1-year follow-up as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study, Oslo, Norway. Scans were automatically processed with the longitudinal stream in FreeSurfer that creates an unbiased within-subject template image. General linear models were used to analyse longitudinal change in a wide range of subcortical volumes and detailed thickness and surface area estimates across the entire cortex, and associations with clinical characteristics.
FEP patients and controls did not differ significantly in annual percentage change in cortical thickness or area in any cortical region, or in any of the subcortical structures after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Within the FEP group, duration of untreated psychosis, age at illness onset, antipsychotic medication use and remission at follow-up were not related to longitudinal brain change.
We found no significant longitudinal brain changes over a 1-year period in FEP patients. Our results do not support early progressive brain changes in psychotic disorders.
PubMed ID
26526001 View in PubMed
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Normal birth weight variation is related to cortical morphology across the psychosis spectrum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267468
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2014 Mar;40(2):410-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Unn K Haukvik
Lars M Rimol
J Cooper Roddey
Cecilie B Hartberg
Elisabeth H Lange
Anja Vaskinn
Ingrid Melle
Ole A Andreassen
Anders Dale
Ingrid Agartz
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2014 Mar;40(2):410-9
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bipolar Disorder - pathology - physiopathology
Birth Weight - physiology
Cerebral Cortex - anatomy & histology - growth & development
Female
Humans
Intelligence - physiology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - instrumentation - methods
Male
Memory, Short-Term - physiology
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychotic Disorders - pathology - physiopathology
Registries
Schizophrenia - pathology - physiopathology
Abstract
Normal birth weight variation affects schizophrenia risk and cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Brain cortical anatomy is altered in psychotic disorders and in low birth weight subjects, but if birth weight variation relates to cortical morphology across the psychosis spectrum is not known.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging brain scans and clinical-, neurocognitive-, and medical birth registry data were collected from 359 adults including patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 90, mean age 29.4±10.2 [95% CI], 62% male), bipolar disorder (n = 79, age 29.4±11.8, 39% male) or other psychosis (n = 40, age 26.3±10.0, 56% male), and healthy controls (n = 140, age 30.8±12.0,53% male). We explored the relationship between whole-range birth weight variation and cortical surface area and thickness and their possible associations to cognitive performance.
Across all groups, lower birth weight was associated with smaller total surface area (t = 3.87, P = .0001), within specific regions of the temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex bilaterally. There were no associations between birth weight and cortical thickness, and no diagnosis by birth weight interaction effects on cortical thickness or surface area. Smaller cortical area (t = 2.50, P = .013) and lower birth weight (t = 2.53, P = .012) were significantly related to poorer working memory performance in all diagnostic groups except schizophrenia.
Birth weight relates to adult cortical surface area, but not cortical thickness, in patients across the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls. Cortical area appears to be a diagnosis-independent general marker of early neurodevelopment, with a dose-response association to normal birth weight variation.
PubMed ID
23419977 View in PubMed
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Ongoing hepatitis A outbreak in Europe 2013 to 2014: imported berry mix cake suspected to be the source of infection in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102710
Source
Euro Surveill. 2014;19(15)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
B. Guzman-Herrador
L. Jensvoll
M. Einoder-Moreno
H. Lange
S. Myking
K. Nygard
K. Stene-Johansen
L. Vold
Source
Euro Surveill. 2014;19(15)
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Outbreaks
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Frozen Foods - virology
Fruit - virology
Hepatitis A - epidemiology - virology
Hepatitis A virus - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Norway - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Abstract
On 7 March 2014, an increase in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections was identified in Norway. As of 12 April, 19 cases of HAV infection with a virus strain identical to an ongoing European outbreak have been identified. Six probable cases are currently under investigation. On 11 April, a frozen berry mix cake imported from another European country was found as the likely source of the outbreak; the importer has withdrawn the product in Norway.
PubMed ID
24762662 View in PubMed
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Pre- and perinatal hypoxia associated with hippocampus/amygdala volume in bipolar disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261475
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Apr;44(5):975-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
U K Haukvik
T. McNeil
E H Lange
I. Melle
A M Dale
O A Andreassen
I. Agartz
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Apr;44(5):975-85
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Amygdala - pathology
Asphyxia Neonatorum - epidemiology - pathology
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - pathology
Comorbidity
Female
Fetal Hypoxia - epidemiology - pathology
Hippocampus - pathology
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Pre- and perinatal adversities may increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hypoxia-related obstetric complications (OCs) are associated with brain anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, but their association with brain anatomy variation in bipolar disorder is unknown.
Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, clinical examinations and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were obtained for 219 adults, including 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder (age 29.4 years, s.d. = 11.8 years, 39% male) and 140 healthy controls (age 30.8 years, s.d. = 12.0 years, 53% male). Severe hypoxia-related OCs throughout pregnancy/birth and perinatal asphyxia were each studied in relation to a priori selected brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricles and amygdala, obtained with FreeSurfer), using linear regression models covarying for age, sex, medication use and intracranial volume. Multiple comparison adjustment was applied.
Perinatal asphyxia was associated with smaller left amygdala volume (t = -2.59, p = 0.012) in bipolar disorder patients, but not in healthy controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed distinct associations between perinatal asphyxia and smaller left amygdala volume (t = -2.69, p = 0.010), whereas patients with non-psychotic bipolar disorder showed smaller right hippocampal volumes related to both perinatal asphyxia (t = -2.60, p = 0.015) and severe OCs (t = -3.25, p = 0.003). No associations between asphyxia or severe OCs and the lateral ventricles were found.
Pre- and perinatal hypoxia-related OCs are related to brain morphometry in bipolar disorder in adulthood, with specific patterns in patients with psychotic versus non-psychotic illness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23803260 View in PubMed
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Second outbreak of infection with a rare Cryptosporidium parvum genotype in schoolchildren associated with contact with lambs/goat kids at a holiday farm in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256921
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct;142(10):2105-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
H. Lange
O H Johansen
L. Vold
L J Robertson
I L Anthonisen
K. Nygard
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology,Norwegian Institute of Public Health,Oslo,Norway.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct;142(10):2105-13
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Child
Cohort Studies
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Cryptosporidium parvum - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - parasitology
Female
Genotype
Goat Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Goats
Holidays
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Sheep
Sheep Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Abstract
In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6-11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7-37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.
PubMed ID
24308502 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.