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Assessing historical exposure is like solving a mystery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174283
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2005 Jul;62(7):429-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
H. Kromhout
Author Affiliation
Environmental and Occupational Health Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands. H.Kromhout@iras.uu.nl
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2005 Jul;62(7):429-30
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Archives
Data Collection - methods
Denmark
Epidemiologic Methods
Humans
Industry
Laundering
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Notes
Comment On: Occup Environ Med. 2005 Jul;62(7):434-4115961618
PubMed ID
15961615 View in PubMed
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Cross-shift changes in FEV1 in relation to wood dust exposure: the implications of different exposure assessment methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178309
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2004 Oct;61(10):824-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
V. Schlünssen
T. Sigsgaard
I. Schaumburg
H. Kromhout
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. vivi_schlunssen@dadlnet.dk
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2004 Oct;61(10):824-30
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dust
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
Humans
Occupational Diseases - etiology - physiopathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Respiration Disorders - etiology - physiopathology
Wood
Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract
Exposure-response analyses in occupational studies rely on the ability to distinguish workers with regard to exposures of interest.
To evaluate different estimates of current average exposure in an exposure-response analysis on dust exposure and cross-shift decline in FEV1 among woodworkers.
Personal dust samples (n = 2181) as well as data on lung function parameters were available for 1560 woodworkers from 54 furniture industries. The exposure to wood dust for each worker was calculated in eight different ways using individual measurements, group based exposure estimates, a weighted estimate of individual and group based exposure estimates, and predicted values from mixed models. Exposure-response relations on cross-shift changes in FEV1 and exposure estimates were explored.
A positive exposure-response relation between average dust exposure and cross-shift FEV1 was shown for non-smokers only and appeared to be most pronounced among pine workers. In general, the highest slope and standard error (SE) was revealed for grouping by a combination of task and factory size, the lowest slope and SE was revealed for estimates based on individual measurements, with the weighted estimate and the predicted values in between. Grouping by quintiles of average exposure for task and factory combinations revealed low slopes and high SE, despite a high contrast.
For non-smokers, average dust exposure and cross-shift FEV1 were associated in an exposure dependent manner, especially among pine workers. This study confirms the consequences of using different exposure assessment strategies studying exposure-response relations. It is possible to optimise exposure assessment combining information from individual and group based exposure estimates, for instance by applying predicted values from mixed effects models.
Notes
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1983;51(3):191-86852927
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Cites: Am J Ind Med. 1999 Nov;36(5):548-5610506737
Cites: J Occup Med. 1985 Jul;27(7):501-64032087
PubMed ID
15377768 View in PubMed
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Exposure levels, determinants and IgE mediated sensitization to bovine allergens among Danish farmers and non-farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266712
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015 Mar;218(2):265-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
V. Schlünssen
I. Basinas
E. Zahradnik
G. Elholm
I M Wouters
H. Kromhout
D. Heederik
A C S Bolund
Ø. Omland
M. Raulf
T. Sigsgaard
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015 Mar;218(2):265-72
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - analysis - immunology
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cattle
Denmark - epidemiology
Dust - analysis - immunology
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Housing
Housing, Animal
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - immunology
Immunoglobulin E - immunology
Male
Mink
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Prevalence
Rural Population
Swine
Abstract
Bovine allergens can induce allergic airway diseases. High levels of allergens in dust from stables and homes of dairy farmers have been reported, but sparse knowledge about determinants for bovine allergen levels and associations between exposure level and sensitization is available.
To investigate levels and determinants of bovine allergen exposure among dairy, pig and mink farmers (bedroom and stable), and among former and never farmers (bedroom), and to assess the prevalence of bovine allergen sensitization in these groups.
In 2007-2008, 410 settled dust samples were collected in stables and in bedrooms using an electrostatic dust-fall collector over a 14 day period among 54 pig farmers, 27 dairy farmers, 3 mink farmers as well as 71 former and 48 never farmers in Denmark. For farmers sampling was carried out both during summer and winter. Bovine allergen levels (µg/m(2)) were measured using a sandwich ELISA. Determinants for bovine allergen exposure in stables and bedrooms were explored with mixed effect regression analyses. Skin prick test with bovine allergen was performed on 48 pig farmers, 20 dairy farmers, 54 former and 31 never farmers.
Bovine allergen levels varied by five orders of magnitude, as expected with substantially higher levels in stables than bedrooms, especially for dairy farmers. Bovine allergen levels in bedrooms were more than one order of magnitude higher for dairy farmers compared to pig farmers. Former and never farmers had low levels of bovine allergens in their bedroom. Bovine allergen levels during summer appeared to be somewhat higher than during winter. Increased bovine allergen levels in the bedroom were associated with being a farmer or living on a farm. Mechanical ventilation in the bedroom decreased bovine allergen level, significant for dairy farmers ß=-1.4, p
PubMed ID
25534699 View in PubMed
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Performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs): European collaborative analyses on occupational risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with job exposure matrices (ECOJEM).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67492
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2000 Feb;57(2):126-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
N. Le Moual
P. Bakke
E. Orlowski
D. Heederik
H. Kromhout
S M Kennedy
B. Rijcken
F. Kauffmann
Author Affiliation
INSERM Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit 472, Villejuif, France.
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2000 Feb;57(2):126-32
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Female
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
France - epidemiology
Humans
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) and self reported occupational exposure with data on exposure and lung function from three European general populations. METHODS: Self reported occupational exposure (yes or no) and present occupation were recorded in the three general population surveys conducted in France, The Netherlands, and Norway. Analysis was performed on subjects, aged 25-64, who provided good forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) tracings and whose occupations were performed by at least two people, in the French (6217 men and 5571 women), the Dutch (men from urban (854) and rural (780) areas), and the Norwegian (395 men) surveys. Two population specific JEMs, based on the percentage of subjects who reported themselves exposed in each job, were constructed for each survey and each sex. The first matrix classified jobs into three categories of exposure according to the proportion of subjects who reported themselves exposed in each job (P10-50 JEM, low or = 50%). For the second matrix, a dichotomous variable was constructed to have the same statistical power as the self reported exposure--that is, the exposure prevalence (p) was the same with both exposure assessment methods (Pp JEM). Relations between occupational exposure, as estimated by the two JEMs and self reported exposure, and age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score were compared. RESULTS: Significant associations between occupational exposure estimated by the population specific JEM and lung function were found in the French and the rural Dutch surveys, whereas no significant relation was found with self reported exposure. In populations with few subjects in most jobs, exposure cannot be estimated with sufficient precision by a population specific JEM, which may explain the lack of relation in the Norwegian and the Dutch (urban area) surveys. CONCLUSION: The population specific JEM, which was easy to construct and cost little, seemed to perform better than crude self reported exposures, in populations with sufficient numbers of subjects per job.
PubMed ID
10711281 View in PubMed
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A retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality in employees of a Russian chrysotile asbestos mine and mills: study rationale and key features.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114549
Source
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;37(4):440-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
J. Schüz
S J Schonfeld
H. Kromhout
K. Straif
S V Kashanskiy
E V Kovalevskiy
I V Bukhtiyarov
V. McCormack
Author Affiliation
Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. schuzj@iarc.fr
Source
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;37(4):440-5
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Serpentine - adverse effects
Cohort Studies
Epidemiologic Research Design
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mining
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology - pathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
Chrysotile, a serpentine asbestos fibre, is the only type of asbestos produced and consumed in the world today. It is an established human carcinogen. We have begun fieldwork on a retrospective cohort study of employees of one of the world's largest chrysotile mine and mills, situated in Asbest, Russia. The primary aim of the study is to better characterize and quantify the risk of cancer mortality in terms of (i) the dose-response relationship of exposure with risk; (ii) the range of cancer sites affected, including female-specific cancers; and (iii) effects of duration of exposure and latency periods. This information will expand our understanding of the scale of the impending cancer burden due to chrysotile, including if chrysotile use ceased worldwide forthwith. Herein we describe the scientific rationale for conducting this study and the main features of its study design.
PubMed ID
23608525 View in PubMed
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Within-day variability of magnetic fields among electric utility workers: consequences for measurement strategies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198847
Source
AIHAJ. 2000 Jan-Feb;61(1):31-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
M P van der Woord
H. Kromhout
L. Barregård
P. Jonsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Source
AIHAJ. 2000 Jan-Feb;61(1):31-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Electromagnetic fields
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Risk Assessment - standards
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Occupational exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields was surveyed among electric utility workers to investigate (1) components of exposure variability, (2) patterns of autocorrelation between short-term measurements, and (3) imprecision and misclassification due to short-term measurements. Spot measurements every 10 seconds during 81 working days were analyzed for 42 electric utility workers from 10 occupational subgroups and during 8 working days for 4 office workers from the same company. For the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) magnetic fields, the variability was partitioned into its components: within workers, between workers, and between groups. For spot measurements of magnetic fields, the within-day variance component also was examined. Autocorrelation functions were determined and numbers of short-term measurements necessary for reliable estimates of 8-hour TWA magnetic fields were assessed. Spot measurements of magnetic fields, as well as 8-hour TWA magnetic fields, were approximately lognormally distributed among workers. The mean exposure to magnetic fields was 0.47 microT (n = 81 days) in electric utility workers and 0.12 microT (n = 8 days) in office workers. A large fraction, 76% of the spot measurements total variance, could be attributed to variability within days. For the 8-hour TWA magnetic fields, between-group variability was small and of the same magnitude as between-worker variability. Significant autocorrelations between short-term averages of 7.5, 15, and 30 minutes were present, when taken within periods of 30 minutes. One-hour averages showed no autocorrelation. Simulations showed that, due to high within-day variability and autocorrelation, a limited number of short-term measurements of magnetic fields in electric utility workers are likely to result in imprecise estimates of 8-hour TWA magnetic fields. Measurement strategies relying on short-term (spot) measurements are therefore likely to result in misclassification of exposure and consequently absent or spurious exposure-response relations.
Notes
RepublishedFrom: AIHAJ 1999 Nov-Dec;60(6):713-9
RepublishedIn: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1999 Nov-Dec;60(6):713-910635537
PubMed ID
10772612 View in PubMed
Less detail

Within-day variability of magnetic fields among electric utility workers: consequences for measurement strategies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199759
Source
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1999 Nov-Dec;60(6):713-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
M P van der Woord
H. Kromhout
L. Barregård
P. Jonsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Source
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1999 Nov-Dec;60(6):713-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Electromagnetic fields
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Risk Assessment - standards
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Occupational exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields was surveyed among electric utility workers to investigate (1) components of exposure variability, (2) patterns of autocorrelation between short-term measurements, and (3) imprecision and misclassification due to short-term measurements. Spot measurements every 10 seconds during 81 working days were analyzed for 42 electric utility workers from 10 occupational subgroups and during 8 working days for 4 office workers from the same company. For the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) magnetic fields, the variability was partitioned into its components: within workers, between workers, and between groups. For spot measurements of magnetic fields, the within-day variance component also was examined. Autocorrelation functions were determined and numbers of short-term measurements necessary for reliable estimates of 8-hour TWA magnetic fields were assessed. Spot measurements of magnetic fields, as well as 8-hour TWA magnetic fields, were approximately log normally distributed among workers. The mean exposure to magnetic fields was 0.47 microT (n = 81 days) in electric utility workers and 0.12 microT (n = 8 days) in office workers. A large fraction, 76% of the spot measurements total variance, could be attributed to variability within days. For the 8-hour TWA magnetic fields, between-group variability was small and of the same magnitude as between-worker variability. Significant autocorrelations between short-term averages of 7.5, 15, and 30 minutes were present, when taken within periods of 30 minutes. One-hour averages showed no autocorrelation. Simulations showed that, due to high within-day variability and autocorrelation, a limited number of short-term measurements of magnetic fields in electric utility workers are likely to result in imprecise estimates of 8-hour TWA magnetic fields. Measurement strategies relying on short-term (spot) measurements are therefore likely to result in misclassification of exposure and consequently absent or spurious exposure-response relations.
Notes
RepublishedFrom: AIHAJ. 2000 Jan-Feb;61(1):31-810772612
PubMed ID
10635537 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.