This study is the first part of a longitudinal investigation of the retirement process. This stage of the inquiry concerned how older persons anticipate their retirement.
Thirty-two workers were randomly selected from all workers age 63 years in a suburb of Stockholm. They participated in semistructured interviews about their work and their expectations for retirement.
The participants narratives illustrated the complex work of interpreting the past and expected meaning in one's occupational life. The narratives, which anticipated widely different future trajectories, revealed many of the challenges and dilemmas of anticipating retirement and the close association of work experience to expectations for retirement. In particular, the narratives highlighted the participants' concerns about maintaining the quality of experience in activity. The findings also demonstrate the process by which persons anticipate and make choices about life change.
People anticipate retirement through volitional narratives in which they link together past, present, and future. Understanding this volitional process of interpreting, anticipating, and making choices is important to understanding how people adapt to life changes.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of articular hypermobility and its relationship to musculoskeletal pain in Icelandic 12-yr-olds, and to obtain baseline data for a prospective study on the subject. METHODS: A total of 267 12-yr-olds were examined for articular hypermobility by the Beighton criteria. The children also answered a questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal pain and injuries, sports and musical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypermobility (defined as >/=4 Beighton criteria) was 40.5% in girls and 12.9% in boys. Despite slight trends for hypermobile subjects to be less active in sports and to report more joint pain, no correlation could be found between hypermobility and musculoskeletal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: An unusually marked sex difference in hypermobility exists among Icelandic 12-yr-olds, but hypermobility does not seem to affect joint symptoms or leisure activities at this age.
In the early 1970's British doctors (Beaumont et al) published clinical findings and concluded that anorexia nervosa is a disease occurring in both sexes. Until then it had been considered a female disease only. A number of studies have reported a rather poor outcome for boys and men. In a Danish study infertility was noted in affected men. The aim of this study is to describe typical arrays of clinical data in order to assess attitudes and values concerning the effect of treatment on 28 teenagers out of a total of 48 children and adolescents. A sociometric questionnaire was used to assess the youngsters' knowledge of their disease, their opinions concerning the competence of staff, their feelings concerning treatment, including parental involvement in therapy and medications used, as well as their opinions concerning the results of treatment. All boys are alive (in 1999), 19 years after falling ill. The boys were much more reluctant to accept inpatient care than were the girls, who seem to show greater autonomy. Participants' final appraisal of treatment is slightly positive, whereas in the hypothetical situation that a friend might fall ill with an eating disorder, a sizeable majority would recommend contact with child psychiatry.
The results of treatment of the first 12 Danish patients with the Brånemark titanium implant system and the bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) are reported. All implants were osseointegrated, judged by 99mTC-scintigraphy, X-ray examination and clinical examination. Skin reactions were few, transient and short lasting. The patients experienced the BAHA to be superior to both conventional BC hearing aids and AC hearing aids in practically all respects. Speech discrimination scores in quiet and in noise were similar for the 3 types of hearing aids.
During the period 1978-1982 in the three northernmost countries of Sweden all 143 patients with a registered diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were retrospectively analyzed. After re-evaluation, 122 cases remained in the study. The mean age was 71 years and the male/female ratio was 2.2:1. Sixty-one patients were Binet stage A, 29 stage B and 32 stage C. The diagnosis CLL was made after routine check-up for other diseases in most of the patients and they had no symptoms from the CLL. The median survival was 51 months and there were no differences in crude survival according to stage or other prognostic factors such as hemoglobin, lymphocytes or thrombocytes in peripheral blood. Analysis of CLL as a cause of specific mortality showed the stage of CLL to have a slight prognostic significance. This could be due to the fact that many of the patients suffered from other serious diseases, allowing the detection of early stage or advanced CLL with no symptoms.
In search of features of prognostic importance, a cohort of patients admitted to a mental hospital in 1925 was investigated by means of multivariate clustering techniques. Using K-means cluster analysis or Q-factor analysis, a group containing cases with unfavourable prognosis was isolated. Other groups derived were prognostically heterogeneous. One group of patients, in early phases similar to good prognosis schizoaffective psychoses, could be distinguished and characterized by non-symptom items. There was initial periodicity and onset was acute. They were, on average, younger than the other subjects and there was no personality deviation or emotional disturbance before onset of disease. A family history of mental illness was rare. Two of the factors were positively and negatively characterized by items covering familial history of mental illness, thus seemingly confirming the familial vs sporadic distinction in the subclassification of schizophrenia. Though the clinical pictures were distinctively different at the time when the ratings underlying the analysis were made, approximately the same proportion of cases in the two groups had independently been diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenia--also taking the course of illness into account. It could furthermore be shown that the population at risk--siblings and children of subjects--as well as the observed number of years at risk in these groups were significantly smaller in the sporadic group than in the familial group. This was a combined effect of a lower fertility in subjects and parents in the sporadic group and a higher rate of drop out due to mortality and other reasons among siblings of these subjects. The same tendency was indicated when subjects with and without family history irrespective of factor belongingness were compared. It cannot be concluded that the familial vs sporadic distinction is without relevance in the research on schizophrenia, but its essence may easily be obscured, if the population at risk is not taken into account.
The aim of this study is to review indication, technique and results of cochlear implant (CI) treatment with Nucleus CI-multi-electrode of the first ten children operated in Denmark (five children with congenital deafness and five with acquired prelingual deafness due to meningitis). In the literature, the importance of early referral and operation at the age 2-3 (4) years for congenital deafness and as soon as possible on suspicion of acquired deafness (meningitis) is stressed. A short survey of our indications, technique and rehabilitation is presented. The results of treatment after 11-44 months' use of CI are that one child has language almost matching age, four use words and short sentences accompanied by support signing, three have sound reaction and say single words without sentence building, but of these two children have only used CI for a very short time and are improving. Two meningitis sequelae cases had cochlear ossification, which made the implantation difficult. Both patients had to be operated, and one of them is not using the processor.
The aim of the study was to review the indications, techniques and results of cochlear implant (CI) treatment with the Nucleus CI multi-channel electrode for the first children operated on in Denmark. The study material comprised 16 children (5 girls, 11 boys). Their median age at the time of CI operation was 27 months. Anacusis was caused by pneumococcal meningitis in 31% of the children in this relatively young prelingual material. Obliteration of the cochlea was found in two children, indicating the need for surgery as soon as possible after the verification of post-meningitis, total deafness. There were no technical difficulties with operating on the youngest children in the congenital group and the age of 2 years is optimal for implantation. These preliminary results have contributed definitively to an increase in the number of cochlear implantations being carried out in young prelingually deaf Danish children.
The diagnostic value of measuring rheumatoid factor (RF) by agglutination or isotype-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared. The study included 70 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 205 patients with various other rheumatic conditions. Of the RA patients, 74% were RF-positive by agglutination and 90% had one or more RF isotypes elevated by ELISA compared to 14% and 22%, respectively, of the other patients. Strikingly, 70% of the RF-positive RA patients had an elevation of two or more RF isotypes compared to only 16% of the other RF-positive patients (P
A total of 154 patients admitted for the first time to hospital for a psychotic or affective disorder in 1925 were rediagnosed in accordance with DSM-III and Leonhard's diagnostic system. Symptoms were rated in accordance with a rating protocol containing 33 items based on Leonhard's descriptions of cycloid psychoses. The patients were followed up through parish registers and hospital records. Of 42 cases considered to be cycloid psychosis at index admission, 34 were prognostically verified. The symptom ratings of the 154 patients were analysed by K-means cluster analysis to test whether the patients with cycloid psychoses would separate from the rest of the material. With a 2-cluster solution, 30 of 34 cases (88%) were contained in the same cluster. The sensitivity of the ratings was therefore judged to be acceptable. Specificity was low, however, since 19 cases in the cluster were differently diagnosed. A subcohort of 64 patients, satisfying at least 5 items of the rating protocol, was then analysed by Q-factor analysis to test whether nuclear cases of cycloid psychosis differ from symptomatically related syndromes. No such differences could be statistically verified; no symptom profile specifically indicating cycloid psychosis could be found. Prominent confusion symptoms appear, however, to be prognostically favourable, whereas motility symptoms without confusion seem to indicate an unfavourable course.