Species of Cryptosporidium and Giardia can infect humans and wildlife and have the potential to be transmitted between these 2 groups; yet, very little is known about these protozoans in marine wildlife. Feces of river otters (Lontra canadensis), a common marine wildlife species in the Puget Sound Georgia Basin, were examined for species of Cryptosporidium and Giardia to determine their role in the epidemiology of these pathogens. Using ZnSO4 flotation and immunomagnetic separation, followed by direct immunofluorescent antibody detection (IMS/DFA), we identified Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in 9 fecal samples from 6 locations and Giardia sp. cysts in 11 fecal samples from 7 locations. The putative risk factors of proximate human population and degree of anthropogenic shoreline modification were not associated with the detection of Cryptosporidium or Giardia spp. in river otter feces. Amplification of DNA from the IMS/DFA slide scrapings was successful for 1 sample containing > 500 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Sequences from the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA and the COWP loci were most similar to the ferret Cryptosporidium sp. genotype. River otters could serve as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in marine ecosystems. More work is needed to better understand the zoonotic potential of the genotypes they carry as well as their implications for river otter health.
A total of 952 blood and 1543 urine isolates of gram-negative bacilli from hospitalized patients in 1986-1987 were consecutively collected by 10 Swedish laboratories and tested for susceptibility to 8 beta-lactam antibiotics and to gentamicin. The isolates were mostly Escherichia coli (58% and 44%, respectively) and Klebsiella sp. (17% and 18%). Resistance to ampicillin in blood and urine isolates was found in 35% and 45%, respectively, to piperacillin in 5% and 6%, to cephalothin in 26% and 34%, to cefuroxime in 12% and 22%, to cefotaxime in 3% and 5%, to ceftazidime in 1% and 1%, to imipenem in 0.5% and 0.1%, to aztreonam in 3% and 2%, and to gentamicin in 0.8% and 0%. Resistance of clinically important gram-negative bacilli to new beta-lactam antibiotics and to gentamicin is infrequent in Sweden.