Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have independently found numerous loci at which common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modestly influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to test 11 loci, reported to be associated with an increased or decreased risk of colorectal cancer: 8q23.3 (rs16892766), 8q24.21 (rs6983267), 9p24 (rs719725), 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842), 14q22.2 (rs4444235), 15q13.3 (rs4779584), 16q22.1 (rs9929218), 18q21.1 (rs4939827), 19q13.1 (rs10411210) and 20p12.3 (rs961253), in a Swedish-based cohort.
The cohort was composed of 1786 cases and 1749 controls that were genotyped and analysed statistically. Genotype-phenotype analysis, for all 11 SNPs and sex, age of onset, family history of CRC and tumour location, was performed.
Of eleven loci, 5 showed statistically significant odds ratios similar to previously published findings: 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 10p14, 15q13.3 and 18q21.1. The remaining loci 11q23.1, 16q22.1, 19q13.1 and 20p12.3 showed weak trends but somehow similar to what was previously published. The loci 9p24 and 14q22.2 could not be confirmed. We show a higher number of risk alleles in affected individuals compared to controls. Four statistically significant genotype-phenotype associations were found; the G allele of rs6983267 was associated to older age, the G allele of rs1075668 was associated with a younger age and sporadic cases, and the T allele of rs10411210 was associated with younger age.
Our study, using a Swedish population, supports most genetic variants published in GWAS. More studies are needed to validate the genotype-phenotype correlations.
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Nov;18(11):3062-719843678
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Feb;18(2):616-2119155440
The prevalence of breastfeeding in Scotland is the second lowest in Europe. There is good evidence that breastfeeding results in decreased gastrointestinal, and to a lesser extent respiratory infections, in the first year of life, and reduced serious infections in low-birthweight babies. Published evidence for the effectiveness of interventions which seek to promote successful breastfeeding within populations is scanty and of poor quality, although numerous studies have highlighted hospital practices which discourage and undermine breastfeeding. Changing these poor practices has been shown to be achievable and can lead to improved breastfeeding rates. Experience in other industrialized countries such as Canada, Australia and Norway has shown that substantial increases in breastfeeding are achievable through combined government and health service action over a period of one or two decades. We recommend a combination of government and health service action to promote breastfeeding in Scotland including: implementation of the International Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; reviews of health professional basic and in-service training in breastfeeding management, maternity leave and allowances, and workplace facilities for breastfeeding mothers; promotion of the Baby Friendly Initiative; development of community support for breastfeeding mothers; routine collection of breastfeeding data to support annual monitoring of breastfeeding rates; and support for research on the effectiveness of strategies which seek to promote breastfeeding.