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Aboriginal users of Canadian quitlines: an exploratory analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160066
Source
Tob Control. 2007 Dec;16 Suppl 1:i60-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Lynda M Hayward
H Sharon Campbell
Carol Sutherland-Brown
Author Affiliation
Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, Lyle S Hallman Institute, Room 1717A, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1. lhayward@healthy.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Tob Control. 2007 Dec;16 Suppl 1:i60-4
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Counseling - methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hotlines - utilization
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - ethnology
Patient satisfaction
Smoking - ethnology - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation - ethnology - methods - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To conduct an exploratory, comparative study of the utilisation and effectiveness of tobacco cessation quitlines among aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian smokers.
Population based quitlines that provide free cessation information, advice and counselling to Canadian smokers.
First time quitline callers, age 18 years of age and over, who called the quitline between August 2001 and December 2005 and who completed the evaluation and provided data on their ethnic status (n = 7082).
Demographic characteristics and tobacco behaviours of participants at intake and follow-up; reasons for calling; actions taken toward quitting, and 6-month follow-up quit rates.
7% of evaluation participants in the time period reported aboriginal origins. Aboriginal participants were younger than non-aboriginals but had similar smoking status and level of addiction at intake. Concern about future health and current health problems were the most common reasons aboriginal participants called. Six months after intake aboriginals and non-aboriginals had taken similar actions with 57% making a 24-hour quit attempt. Quit rates were higher for aboriginals than non-aboriginals, particularly for men. The 6-month prolonged abstinence rate for aboriginal men was 16.7% compared with 7.2% for aboriginal women and 9.4% and 8.3% for non-aboriginal men and women, respectively.
This exploratory analysis showed that even without targeted promotion, aboriginal smokers do call Canadian quitlines, primarily for health related reasons. We also showed that the quitlines are effective at helping them to quit. As a population focused intervention, quitlines can reach a large proportion of smokers in a cost efficient manner. In aboriginal communities where smoking rates exceed 50% and multiple health risks and chronic diseases already exist, eliminating non-ceremonial tobacco use must be a priority. Our results, although exploratory, suggest quitlines can be an effective addition to aboriginal tobacco cessation strategies.
Notes
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Cites: Tob Control. 2007 Dec;16 Suppl 1:i16-2018048624
Cites: Health Rep. 1992;4(1):7-241391655
PubMed ID
18048634 View in PubMed
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Adolescent smoking: effect of school and community characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139245
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Dec;39(6):507-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Chris Y Lovato
Cornelia Zeisser
H Sharon Campbell
Allison W Watts
Peter Halpin
Mary Thompson
John Eyles
Edward Adlaf
K Stephen Brown
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. chris.lovato@ubc.ca
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Dec;39(6):507-14
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Female
Health Education - methods
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Organizational Policy
Residence Characteristics
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Students - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A substantial challenge in addressing adolescent tobacco use is that smoking behaviors occur in complex environments that involve the school setting and larger community context.
This study provides an integrated description of factors from the school and community environment that affect youth smoking and explains variation in individual smoking behaviors both within and across schools/communities.
Data were collected from 82 randomly sampled secondary schools in five Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland, and Labrador) during the 2003-2004 school year. Cross-sectional data were obtained from students; school administrators (school-based tobacco control policies and programs); and from observations in the community. In 2009, hierarchic logistic regression was used to model the role of individual, school, and community variables in predicting student smoking outcomes.
Students who attended a school with a focus on tobacco prevention (OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.81, 0.94) and stronger policies prohibiting tobacco use (OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88, 0.97) were less likely to smoke than students who attended a school without these characteristics. A student was more likely to smoke if a greater number of students smoked on the school periphery (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07, 1.47). Within the community, price per cigarette (OR=0.91, 95% CI=0.84, 0.99) and immigrants (OR=0.99, 95% CI=0.98, 0.99) were inversely related to students' smoking status.
The results suggest that school and community characteristics account for variation in smoking levels across schools. Based on the current findings, the ideal school setting that supports low student smoking levels is located in a neighborhood where the cost of cigarettes is high, provides tobacco prevention education, and has a policy prohibiting smoking.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Prev Med. 2010 Dec;39(6):609-1021084083
PubMed ID
21084070 View in PubMed
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The imperative of strategic alignment across organizations: the experience of the Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152237
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):Suppl I27-30
Publication Type
Article
Author
Roy Cameron
Barbara L Riley
H Sharon Campbell
Stephen Manske
Kim Lamers-Bellio
Author Affiliation
Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, University of Waterloo, Lyle S. Hallman Institute North, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1. cameron@healthy.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):Suppl I27-30
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Behavioral Research
Canada
Community-Based Participatory Research
Decision Making, Organizational
Evidence-Based Medicine
Health Behavior
Humans
Interdisciplinary Communication
Intervention Studies
Neoplasms - prevention & control
Policy Making
Public Health
Public Health Administration
Public-Private Sector Partnerships - organization & administration
Research Personnel
Voluntary Health Agencies
Abstract
The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described.
PubMed ID
19263980 View in PubMed
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Psychometric properties of cancer survivors' unmet needs survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145886
Source
Support Care Cancer. 2010 Feb;19(2):221-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
H Sharon Campbell
Rob Sanson-Fisher
Donna Turner
Lynda Hayward
X Sunny Wang
Jill Taylor-Brown
Author Affiliation
Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo, Room 1726, Lyle S Hallman Institute North, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1. sharoncm@uwaterloo.ca
Source
Support Care Cancer. 2010 Feb;19(2):221-30
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Needs Assessment
Neoplasms - psychology
Psychometrics
Survivors - psychology
Abstract
This study aims to develop a psychometrically rigorous instrument to measure the unmet needs of adult cancer survivors who are 1 to 5 years post-cancer diagnosis. "Unmet needs" distinguishes between problems which survivors experience and problems which they desire help in managing.
The survey was developed from a comprehensive literature review, qualitative analysis of the six most important unmet needs of 71 cancer survivors, review of the domains and items by survivors and experts, cognitive interviews and a pilot test of 100 survivors. A stratified random sample of 550 cancer survivors, selected from a population-based Cancer Registry, completed a mailed survey to establish reliability and validity.
The final 89-item Survivors Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) has high acceptability, item test-retest reliability and internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha 0.990), face, content and construct validity. Five subscales measure Emotional Health needs (33 items, 19.4% of variance), Access and Continuity of Care (22 items, 15.1%), Relationships (15 items, 12.1%), Financial Concerns (11 items, 10.3%) and Information needs (eight items, 8.1% of the variance).
This instrument has strong psychometric properties and is useful for determining the prevalence and predictors of cancer survivors' unmet needs across types of cancer, length of survivorship and socio-demographic characteristics. Use of the SUNS will enable more effective targeting of programmes and services and guide policy and health planning decisions.
This study is an important step toward evidence-based planning and management of problems which the growing survivor population requires assistance in managing.
PubMed ID
20099001 View in PubMed
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School and community predictors of smoking: a longitudinal study of Canadian high schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118145
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Feb;103(2):362-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Chris Lovato
Allison Watts
K Stephen Brown
Derrick Lee
Catherine Sabiston
Candace Nykiforuk
John Eyles
Steve Manske
H Sharon Campbell
Mary Thompson
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. clovato@ubc.ca
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Feb;103(2):362-8
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Policy
Health promotion
Humans
Income
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Schools - statistics & numerical data - trends
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control - trends
Tobacco Products - economics
Young Adult
Abstract
We identified the most effective mix of school-based policies, programs, and regional environments associated with low school smoking rates in a cohort of Canadian high schools over time.
We collected a comprehensive set of student, school, and community data from a national cohort of 51 high schools in 2004 and 2007. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict school and community characteristics associated with school smoking prevalence.
Between 2004 and 2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 13.3% to 10.7% in cohort schools. Predictors of lower school smoking prevalence included both school characteristics related to prevention programming and community characteristics, including higher cigarette prices, a greater proportion of immigrants, higher education levels, and lower median household income.
Effective approaches to reduce adolescent smoking will require interventions that focus on multiple factors. In particular, prevention programming and high pricing for cigarettes sold near schools may contribute to lower school smoking rates, and these factors are amenable to change. A sustained focus on smoking prevention is needed to maintain low levels of adolescent smoking.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23237165 View in PubMed
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School smoking policy characteristics and individual perceptions of the school tobacco context: are they linked to students' smoking status?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148369
Source
J Youth Adolesc. 2009 Nov;38(10):1374-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Catherine M Sabiston
Chris Y Lovato
Rashid Ahmed
Allison W Pullman
Valerie Hadd
H Sharon Campbell
Candace Nykiforuk
K Stephen Brown
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Source
J Youth Adolesc. 2009 Nov;38(10):1374-87
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Organizational Policy
Perception
Schools
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Environment
Students - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19779813 View in PubMed
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Smoke-free spaces over time: a policy diffusion study of bylaw development in Alberta and Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159438
Source
Health Soc Care Community. 2008 Jan;16(1):64-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Candace I J Nykiforuk
John Eyles
H Sharon Campbell
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Promotion Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. candace.nykiforuk@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Soc Care Community. 2008 Jan;16(1):64-74
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Cities - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Ontario
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - prevention & control
Abstract
Policy diffusion is a process whereby political bodies 'learn' policy solutions to public health problems by imitating policy from similar jurisdictions. This suggests that diffusion is a critical element in the policy development process, and that its role must be recognised in any examination of policy development. Yet, to date, no systematic work on the diffusion of smoke-free spaces bylaws has been reported. We examined the diffusion of municipal smoke-free bylaws over a 30-year period in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario, Canada, to begin to address this gap and to determine whether spatial patterns could be identified to help explain the nature of policy development. Bylaw adoption and change were analysed within local, regional, and provincial contexts. Geographical models of hierarchical and expansion diffusion in conjunction with the diffusion of innovations framework conceptually guided the analyses. Study findings contribute to a broader understanding of how and why health policies diffuse across time and place. Policy development can be a powerful mechanism for creating environments that support healthy decisions; hence, an understanding of policy diffusion is critical for those interested in policy interventions aimed at improving population health in any jurisdiction.
PubMed ID
18181816 View in PubMed
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