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Abdominal obesity increases the risk of hip fracture. A population-based study of 43,000 women and men aged 60-79 years followed for 8 years. Cohort of Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261630
Source
J Intern Med. 2015 Mar;277(3):306-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
A J Søgaard
K. Holvik
T K Omsland
G S Tell
C. Dahl
B. Schei
J A Falch
J A Eisman
H E Meyer
Source
J Intern Med. 2015 Mar;277(3):306-17
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body mass index
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity, Abdominal - complications - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
The question as to whether abdominal obesity has an adverse effect on hip fracture remains unanswered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index with incident hip fracture.
The data in this prospective study is based on Cohort of Norway, a population-based cohort established during 1994-2003. Altogether 19,918 women and 23,061 men aged 60-79 years were followed for a median of 8.1 years. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured at baseline using standard procedures. Information on covariates was collected by questionnaires. Hip fractures (n = 1,498 in women, n = 889 in men) were identified from electronic discharge registers from all general hospitals in Norway between 1994 and 2008.
The risk of hip fracture decreased with increasing body mass index, plateauing in obese men. However, higher waist circumference and higher waist-hip ratio were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture after adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders. Women in the highest tertile of waist circumference had an 86% (95% CI: 51-129%) higher risk of hip fracture compared to the lowest, with a corresponding increased risk in men of 100% (95% CI 53-161%). Lower body mass index combined with abdominal obesity increased the risk of hip fracture considerably, particularly in men.
Abdominal obesity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture when body mass index was taken into account. In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity and the number of older people suffering osteoporotic fractures in Western societies, our findings have important clinical and public health implications.
PubMed ID
24597977 View in PubMed
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The association between alcohol consumption and risk of hip fracture differs by age and gender in Cohort of Norway: a NOREPOS study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299340
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2018 Nov; 29(11):2457-2467
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2018
Author
A J Søgaard
A H Ranhoff
H E Meyer
T K Omsland
W Nystad
G S Tell
K Holvik
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, 0403, Oslo, Norway. anne.johanne.sogaard@fhi.no.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2018 Nov; 29(11):2457-2467
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Osteoporotic Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
The association between alcohol consumption and hip fracture differed by gender: Men aged 30-59 years drinking frequently or 14+ gl/week had higher risk than moderate drinkers. No significant association was seen in older men. Women not drinking alcohol had higher risk than those drinking moderately both regarding frequency and amount.
We aimed to examine alcohol consumption and risk of hip fracture according to age and gender in the population-based Cohort of Norway (1994-2003).
Socio-demographics, lifestyle, and health were self-reported and weight and height were measured in 70,568 men and 71,357 women =?30 years. Information on subsequent hip fractures was retrieved from hospitals' electronic patient registries during 1994-2013. Frequency of alcohol consumption was categorized: never/seldom, moderate (=?2-3 times/week), or frequent (=?4 times/week), and amount as number of glasses per week: 0, 1-6, 7-13, 14-27, and 28+. Type of alcohol (wine vs. beer/hard liquor) was also examined. Cox's proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) stratified on gender and baseline age
PubMed ID
30006884 View in PubMed
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Body height, body mass index, and fatal hip fractures: 16 years' follow-up of 674,000 Norwegian women and men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215282
Source
Epidemiology. 1995 May;6(3):299-305
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1995
Author
H E Meyer
A. Tverdal
J A Falch
Author Affiliation
National Health Screening Service, Aker Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Epidemiology. 1995 May;6(3):299-305
Date
May-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Height
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hip Fractures - mortality
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
We studied the relations between body height, body mass index (BMI), and fatal hip fractures prospectively in a large, representative population. During the years 1963-1975, a nationwide compulsory mass x-ray examination including standardized height and weight measurements took place in Norway covering all persons age 15 years and older. In the study presented here, we selected women (N = 357,807) and men (N = 316,041) age 50-89 years at screening. We matched the file to the national death register containing causes of death throughout 1991; we defined cases as persons with hip fracture mentioned on their death certificates. During an average follow-up of 16.4 years, we identified a total of 6,087 fatal hip fractures in the study population. There was a distinct inverse relation between BMI and fatal hip fracture, with an age-adjusted relative risk (RR) in the three highest vs the low quartile of 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.72] in women and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.52-0.62) in men. The risk of fatal hip fractures increased slightly with increasing body height [RR = 1.10 (95% CI = 1.04-1.16) in women and RR = 1.08 (95% CI = 1.01-1.16) in men per 10-cm increase in body height]. This study indicates that low BMI is an important risk factor for fatal hip fractures and that body height has a weak, positive association.
PubMed ID
7619940 View in PubMed
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[Bone mineral density measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. A reference material from Oslo].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211266
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1996 Aug 20;116(19):2299-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-1996
Author
J A Falch
H E Meyer
Author Affiliation
Medisinsk avdeling, Aker sykehus, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1996 Aug 20;116(19):2299-302
Date
Aug-20-1996
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Bone Density
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Reference Values
Sex Factors
Abstract
Reduced bone mass is one of the main risk factors for fracture. An individual classification of future fracture risk can be made by relating bone mass to age- and sex-specific reference values. Since both bone mass and fracture incidence seem to be different in different populations, population-specific reference values should be studied before applying the reference values should by the manufacturers of the various types of measuring equipment. Using Lunar DPX-1, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total body in 225 women and 160 men in the age group 20-80 years, all of them from Oslo. The values were higher for men than for women. In the women the annual loss of bone increased after the age of 50 years in the lumbar spine and total skeleton, but the menopause appeared to have no effect for the femoral neck. Although the age- and sex-specific BMD differed very little from the reference values reported from Sweden and Finland, small differences in mean values and standard deviation between reference materials could create important differences in individual risk calculations if T-scores (deviation from mean value of premenopausal women calculated as standard deviation units) are used.
PubMed ID
8848780 View in PubMed
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Change in the use of hormone replacement therapy and the incidence of fracture in Oslo.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99105
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2009 May;20(5):827-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
H E Meyer
C M Lofthus
A J Søgaard
J A Falch
Author Affiliation
Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. h.e.meyer@medisin.uio.no
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2009 May;20(5):827-30
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Bone Density
Female
Hip Fractures - drug therapy - epidemiology
Hormone Replacement Therapy - trends
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Postmenopause
Radius Fractures - drug therapy - epidemiology
Abstract
Fracture incidence in Oslo decreased from the 1970s to the 1990s in younger postmenopausal women, but not in older women or in men. Concurrently, hormone replacement therapy increased considerably. Using data from the Oslo Health Study, we estimated that roughly half the decline might be attributed hormone replacement therapy. INTRODUCTION: Between the late 1970s and the late 1990s, the incidence of hip fracture and distal forearm fracture decreased in younger postmenopausal women in Oslo, but not in elderly women or in men. The purpose of this report is to evaluate whether the decreased incidence was coherent with trends in use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). METHODS: Data on estrogens were collected from official drug statistics, data on fractures from published studies and data on bone mineral density (BMD) from the Oslo Health Study. RESULTS: The sale of all estrogens increased 22 times from 1979 to 1999, and the sub-category estradiol combined with progestin increased 35 times. In the corresponding period the incidence of distal forearm fracture in women aged 50-64 years decreased by 33% and hip fracture by 39%. Based on differences in BMD between users and non-users of HRT, we estimated that up to half of this decline might be due to HRT. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in fracture incidence in postmenopausal women in Oslo occurred in a period with a substantial increase in the use of HRT. Future surveillance will reveal whether the last years' decline in use of HRT will be translated into increasing fracture rates.
PubMed ID
18563511 View in PubMed
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Changes in body weight and incidence of hip fracture among middle aged Norwegians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214726
Source
BMJ. 1995 Jul 8;311(6997):91-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-8-1995
Author
H E Meyer
A. Tverdal
J A Falch
Author Affiliation
National Health Screening Service, Oslo, Norway.
Source
BMJ. 1995 Jul 8;311(6997):91-2
Date
Jul-8-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body Weight
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - physiopathology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Weight Gain
Weight Loss
Notes
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1991 Jun 27;324(26):1839-442041550
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Oct;79(4):950-47962303
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 1;139(5):493-5038154473
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Jun 1;137(11):1203-118322761
PubMed ID
7613409 View in PubMed
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A combination of low serum concentrations of vitamins K1 and D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures in elderly Norwegians: a NOREPOS study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278154
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2016 Apr;27(4):1645-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
T E Finnes
C M Lofthus
H E Meyer
A J Søgaard
G S Tell
E M Apalset
C. Gjesdal
G. Grimnes
B. Schei
R. Blomhoff
S O Samuelsen
K. Holvik
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2016 Apr;27(4):1645-52
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hip Fractures - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Risk factors
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood - complications - epidemiology
Vitamin K 1 - blood
Vitamin K Deficiency - blood - complications - epidemiology
Abstract
The present study investigated the risk of incident hip fractures according to serum concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in elderly Norwegians during long-term follow-up. The results showed that the combination of low concentrations of both vitamin D and K1 provides a significant risk factor for hip fractures.
This case-cohort study aims to investigate the associations between serum vitamin K1 and hip fracture and the possible effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on this association.
The source cohort was 21,774 men and women aged 65 to 79 years who attended Norwegian community-based health studies during 1994-2001. Hip fractures were identified through hospital registers during median follow-up of 8.2 years. Vitamins were determined in serum obtained at baseline in all hip fracture cases (n?=?1090) and in a randomly selected subcohort (n?=?1318). Cox proportional hazards regression with quartiles of serum vitamin K1 as explanatory variable was performed. Analyses were further performed with the following four groups as explanatory variable: I: vitamin K1?=?0.76 and 25(OH)D?=?50 nmol/l, II: vitamin K1?=?0.76 and 25(OH)D?
PubMed ID
26630974 View in PubMed
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Continued decline in hip fracture incidence in Norway: a NOREPOS study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290794
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2016 07; 27(7):2217-2222
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
07-2016
Author
A J Søgaard
K Holvik
H E Meyer
G S Tell
C G Gjesdal
N Emaus
G Grimnes
B Schei
S Forsmo
T K Omsland
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403, Oslo, Norway. anne.johanne.sogaard@fhi.no.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2016 07; 27(7):2217-2222
Date
07-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Forecasting
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Abstract
The previously reported decline in age-adjusted hip fracture rates in Norway during 1999-2008 continued after 2008. The annual number of hip fractures decreased in women and increased in men.
Norway has among the highest hip fracture incidence rates ever reported despite previously observed declining rates from 1999 through 2008. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this downward trend continued through 2013, and to compare gender-specific trends in 5 year age-groups during three time periods: 1999-2003, 2004-2008, and 2009-2013.
All hip fractures (cervical, trochanteric, and sub-trochanteric) admitted to Norwegian hospitals were retrieved. Annual age-standardized incidence rates of hip fracture per 10,000 person-years by gender were calculated for the period 1999-2013. Time trends were tested by age-adjusted Poisson regression.
From 1999 through 2013 there were 140,136 hip fractures in persons aged 50 years and above. Age-adjusted hip fracture incidence rates declined by 20.4 % (95 % CI: 18.6-20.1) in women and 10.8 % (95 % CI: 7.8-13.8) in men, corresponding to an average annual age-adjusted decline of 1.5 % in women and 0.8 % in men. Except for the oldest men, hip fracture rates declined in all age-groups 70 years and older. The average annual number of fractures decreased in women (-0.3 %) and increased in men (+1.1 %).
During the past 15 years, hip fracture rates have declined in Norway. The forecasted growing number of older individuals might, however, cause an increase in the absolute number of fractures, with a substantial societal economic and public health burden.
Notes
Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov;27(11):2325-32 PMID 22692958
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2011 Oct;22(10):2575-86 PMID 21484361
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2002 May;92(5):858-62 PMID 11988460
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2015 Apr;26(4):1361-6 PMID 25572042
Cites: Epidemiology. 2012 Jul;23(4):623-30 PMID 22531666
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2014 Jan;25(1):211-9 PMID 23818208
Cites: Arch Osteoporos. 2013;8:136 PMID 24113837
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Oct;27(10):807-14 PMID 22870851
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2004 Aug;15(8):603-10 PMID 15004666
Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Aug;29(8):1745-55 PMID 24644018
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2011 May;22(5):1277-88 PMID 21461721
Cites: Bone. 2001 Nov;29(5):413-8 PMID 11704490
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2015 Sep;26(9):2249-55 PMID 25986382
Cites: Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Jun;10(6):338-51 PMID 24751883
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2014 Feb;25(2):711-20 PMID 23982801
Cites: Age Ageing. 2013 Mar;42(2):229-33 PMID 23204430
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2015 Jan;26(1):77-84 PMID 25182229
Cites: BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Nov 13;15:372 PMID 25394865
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2014 Oct;25(10):2493-6 PMID 24980184
PubMed ID
26902091 View in PubMed
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Contribution of elevation and residential proximity to the coast in explaining geographic variations in hip fracture incidence. A Norwegian Epidemiologic Osteoporosis Studies (NOREPOS) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311515
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2021 May; 32(5):1001-1006
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2021
Author
C Dahl
C Madsen
T K Omsland
A-J Søgaard
G S Tell
K Holvik
H E Meyer
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Box 1130, Blindern, 0318, Oslo, Norway. cecilie.dahl@medisin.uio.no.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2021 May; 32(5):1001-1006
Date
May-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Osteoporosis
Risk factors
Seasons
Abstract
A higher risk of hip fracture was found in areas of Norway at higher elevation and farther from the coast. However, the previously seen county variations could not be explained by these geographical factors.
Norway is an elongated country extending north of the Arctic Circle with substantial coast-inland variation in topography and climate. Differences in hip fracture incidence between counties and a distinct seasonal variation have previously been shown. The aim of the current study was to explore these variations further by considering associations of height above sea level (elevation) and distance to the coast with hip fracture incidence.
All patients with hip fractures admitted to Norwegian hospitals in the period 2009-2018 were included. Individual residential elevation and distance to the coast was calculated in Geographic Information Systems and combined with individual-level population data on all Norwegians 50 years of age or older during the observation period, including hospital information on fractures. Age-standardized incidences rate and incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (IRR, 95% CI) according to elevation and coastal proximity were estimated. The associations were tested using Poisson models adjusting for sex, urban/rural location of residency, country of birth, and season of hip fracture occurrence.
From 2009 to 2018, there were 85,776 first hip fractures. There was an increasing risk with higher residential elevation (above versus below mean) for women: IRR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), but not for men (IRR?=?1.00, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.02). Incidence of hip fracture increased with distance from the coast. Women residing the farthest away from the coast (above versus below mean distance) had a higher age-adjusted incidence of hip fracture compared to those living closer to the coast (IRR?=?1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.06), whereas no association was found in men (IRR?=?1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01). Combining elevation and distance to coast showed a higher incidence in women living at high elevation far from the coast compared with women living at low elevation near the coast (IRR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.10). A similar result was found in men but only for hip fractures occurring during March-May (IRR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). The previously shown patterns of county differences and seasonal variations were unchanged when considering geography.
We found a somewhat higher incidence of hip fracture in inland residents living in areas of high elevation, as compared to those living in more coastal proximity; however, the geographic variation did not explain county and seasonal differences in fracture incidence in Norway. More in-depth analyses on temperature and climate factors may give further clues.
PubMed ID
33247392 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contribution of elevation and residential proximity to the coast in explaining geographic variations in hip fracture incidence. A Norwegian Epidemiologic Osteoporosis Studies (NOREPOS) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304043
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2020 Nov 27; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-27-2020
Author
C Dahl
C Madsen
T K Omsland
A-J Søgaard
G S Tell
K Holvik
H E Meyer
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Box 1130, Blindern, 0318, Oslo, Norway. cecilie.dahl@medisin.uio.no.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2020 Nov 27; :
Date
Nov-27-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
A higher risk of hip fracture was found in areas of Norway at higher elevation and farther from the coast. However, the previously seen county variations could not be explained by these geographical factors.
Norway is an elongated country extending north of the Arctic Circle with substantial coast-inland variation in topography and climate. Differences in hip fracture incidence between counties and a distinct seasonal variation have previously been shown. The aim of the current study was to explore these variations further by considering associations of height above sea level (elevation) and distance to the coast with hip fracture incidence.
All patients with hip fractures admitted to Norwegian hospitals in the period 2009-2018 were included. Individual residential elevation and distance to the coast was calculated in Geographic Information Systems and combined with individual-level population data on all Norwegians 50 years of age or older during the observation period, including hospital information on fractures. Age-standardized incidences rate and incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (IRR, 95% CI) according to elevation and coastal proximity were estimated. The associations were tested using Poisson models adjusting for sex, urban/rural location of residency, country of birth, and season of hip fracture occurrence.
From 2009 to 2018, there were 85,776 first hip fractures. There was an increasing risk with higher residential elevation (above versus below mean) for women: IRR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), but not for men (IRR?=?1.00, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.02). Incidence of hip fracture increased with distance from the coast. Women residing the farthest away from the coast (above versus below mean distance) had a higher age-adjusted incidence of hip fracture compared to those living closer to the coast (IRR?=?1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.06), whereas no association was found in men (IRR?=?1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01). Combining elevation and distance to coast showed a higher incidence in women living at high elevation far from the coast compared with women living at low elevation near the coast (IRR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.10). A similar result was found in men but only for hip fractures occurring during March-May (IRR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). The previously shown patterns of county differences and seasonal variations were unchanged when considering geography.
We found a somewhat higher incidence of hip fracture in inland residents living in areas of high elevation, as compared to those living in more coastal proximity; however, the geographic variation did not explain county and seasonal differences in fracture incidence in Norway. More in-depth analyses on temperature and climate factors may give further clues.
PubMed ID
33247392 View in PubMed
Less detail

49 records – page 1 of 5.