Intimate partner violence by men against women has detrimental effects on equality, health and integration. Migrated and 'imported' wives experience an increased risk of intimate partner violence.
The purpose of this study was to explore Thai immigrant women's lived experiences of intimate partner violence in Sweden.
Semi-structured interviews based on the critical incident technique with specific questions about experiences of male-to-female intimate partner violence were used to collect data. The participants were Thai immigrant women who had lived in Sweden for more than five years. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns and variations in the transcribed data material.
Eighteen interviewees reported psychological, physical, economic and/or sexual violence in their international marriages. These Thai women described being faithful and silent and reliable housewives. However, this did not keep them from being replaced and losing dignity as a result of intimate partner violence, including experiencing broken dreams and deception. Although their dreams were broken, they did not give up their efforts to achieve better lives in Sweden.
The vulnerability of imported wives in international marriages needs to be further recognised by health and welfare agencies in Sweden, as elsewhere, to ensure that these women have equal access to human rights, welfare and health as other citizens. From a health promotion perspective, home-based health check-ups are needed to stop the exploitation of imported wives. In Thailand, information and education about the unrecognised negative conditions of the Mia farang role (Imported wife role) need to be disseminated.
The aim was to explore experiences of capacity to work in persons working while depressed and anxious in order to identify the essence of the phenomenon capacity to work.
Four focus groups were conducted with 17 participants employed within the regular job market. Illness experiences ranged from symptoms to clinical diagnoses. A phenomenological approach was employed.
The phenomenon of capacity to work was distinguished by nine constituents related to task, time, context and social interactions. The phenomenon encompassed a lost familiarity with one's ordinary work performance, the use of a working facade and adoption of new time-consuming work practices. Feelings of exposure in interpersonal encounters, disruption of work place order, lost "refueling" and a trade-off of between work capacity and leisure-time activities was also identified. The reduced capacity was pointed out as invisible, this invisibility was considered troublesome.
A complex and comprehensive concept emerged, not earlier described in work capacity studies. Rehabilitation processes would benefit from deeper knowledge of the individual's capacity to work in order to make efficient adjustments at work. Results can have particular relevance both in clinical and occupational health practice, as well as in the workplaces, in supporting re-entering workers after sickness absence. Implications for Rehabilitation The reduced capacity to work due to depression and anxiety is not always understandable or observable for others, therefore, the rehabilitation process would benefit from increased knowledge and understanding of the difficulties afflicted individuals experience at work. Identifying tasks that contribute to "refueling" at work might enhance the success of the rehabilitation. Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the inabilities that impact on the capacity to work when depressed and anxious.
To explore the experiences of today's patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with respect to dilemmas of everyday life, especially regarding patterns of participation restrictions in valued life activities.
A total of 48 patients, aged 20-63, three years post-RA diagnosis were interviewed using the Critical Incident Technique. Transcribed interviews were condensed into meaningful units describing actions/situations. These descriptions were linked to ICF participation codes according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) linking rules.
Dilemmas in everyday life were experienced in domestic life, interpersonal interactions and relationships, community, social and civic life. Most dilemmas were experienced in domestic life, including participation restrictions in, e.g. gardening, repairing houses, shovelling snow, watering pot plants, sewing or walking the dog. Also many dilemmas were experienced related to recreation and leisure within the domain community, social and civic life. The different dilemmas were often related to each other. For instance, dilemmas related to community life were combined with dilemmas within mobility, such as lifting and carrying objects.
Participation restrictions in today's RA patients are complex. Our results underline that the health care needs to be aware of the patients' own preferences and goals to support the early multi-professional interventions in clinical practice. Implications of Rehabilitation Today's rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients experience participation restrictions in activities not included in International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set for RA or in traditionally questionnaires with predefined activities. The health care need to be aware of the patients' own preferences and goals to meet the individual needs and optimize the rehabilitation in early RA in clinical practice.
Long-term sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders has increased, especially for women. The aim of this paper was to explore women's and men's descriptions of the private arena in relation to rehabilitation and sickness absence. This study is part of a larger project focusing on consequences of sick leave. Individual interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998 with 20 women and men who had been long-term sick-listed in 1985 with musculoskeletal diagnoses. The data were analysed using Grounded theory in combination with gender analysis, which involved separately comparing men's and women's statements in order to find similarities and differences. According to the interviewees, factors in the private arena were closely associated with the rehabilitation process. Women described themselves as being responsible for the domestic work while men more often 'helped out' when asked to do so. Women and men described similar strategies to facilitate domestic work. Three dimensions of domestic life were identified, comprising division of domestic work and division of responsibility for domestic life and the amount of socio-emotional support or isolation at home. Using these dimensions, a 'domestic strain model' was developed. Our study indicates that long-term sick-listed women experiencing domestic strain would rather stay at home than return to work. Domestic strain involves inequities in the division of work and responsibilities and a lack of socio-emotional support at home. However, the model of domestic strain needs further empirical testing.
Psychological distress is a well-known complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but knowledge regarding emotions and their relationship to participation restrictions is scarce. The objective of the study was to explore emotions related to participation restrictions by patients with early RA. In this study, 48 patients with early RA, aged 20-63 years, were interviewed about participation restrictions using the critical incident technique. Information from transcribed interviews was converted into dilemmas and linked to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) participation codes. The emotions described were condensed and categorized. Hopelessness and sadness were described when trying to perform daily activities such as getting up in the mornings and getting dressed, or not being able to perform duties at work. Sadness was experienced in relation to not being able to continue leisure activities or care for children. Examples of fear descriptions were found in relation to deteriorating health and fumble fear, which made the individual withdraw from activities as a result of mistrusting the body. Anger and irritation were described in relation to domestic and employed work but also in social relations where the individual felt unable to continue valued activities. Shame or embarrassment was described when participation restrictions became visible in public. Feelings of grief, aggressiveness, fear, and shame are emotions closely related to participation restrictions in everyday life in early RA. Emotions related to disability need to be addressed both in clinical settings in order to optimize rehabilitative multi-professional interventions and in research to achieve further knowledge.
Foot impairments are related to reduced mobility and participation restrictions in daily activities in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The new biologic medications are effective and reduce disease activity, but not disability to the same extent. Foot impairments are assumed to be related to participation restrictions also in patients with early RA, diagnosed after the introduction of biologic medications. Knowledge of foot impairments needs to be explored further after the introduction of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). The aim of this study was to explore the patients' perspective of foot impairments related to early RA.
The sample included 59 patients (ages 20-63 years) who were interviewed about participation dilemmas in daily life using the critical incident technique. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data related to foot impairments were extracted and analyzed thematically. A research partner validated the analysis.
Patients with early RA described a variety of participation restrictions related to foot impairments: foot hindrances in domestic life, foot impairments influencing work, leisure activities restricted by one's feet, struggling to be mobile, and foot impairments as an early sign of rheumatic disease.
There is a need to focus on foot impairments related to early RA, and for health care professionals to understand these signs. A suggestion for future research is to conduct a longitudinal followup of foot impairment related to medication, disease activity, and disability in patients diagnosed after the introduction of bDMARDs.
The experience of hope among cancer patients in palliative care is important information for healthcare providers, but research on the subject is sparse. The aim of this article was to explore how cancer patients admitted to palliative home care experienced the significance of hope and used hope during 6 weeks throughout the last phase of their life, and to assess their symptoms and hope status during 6 weeks throughout the last phase of their lives.
Eleven adult patients with cancer participated in 20 interviews and completed seven diaries. The participants were recruited from two palliative care units in the southeast of Sweden. The method used was Grounded Theory (GT), and analysis was based on the constant comparative method.
The core category, glimmering embers, was generated from four processes: (1) The creation of "convinced" hope, with a focus on positive events, formed in order to have something to look forward to; (2) The creation of "simulated hope," including awareness of the lack of realism, but including attempts to believe in unrealistic reasons for hope; (3) The collection of and maintaining of moments of hope, expressing a wish to "seize the day" and hold on to moments of joy and pleasure; and (4) "Gradually extinct" hope, characterized by a lack of energy and a sense of time running out.
The different processes of hope helped the patients to continue to live when they were close to death. Hope should be respected and understood by the professionals giving them support.
Men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience restrictions in everyday life, in spite of the development of new medications. Recent research has described in detail how participation limitations are experienced in everyday life from a patient perspective. However, knowledge of how sex and intimate relationships are affected is still scarce.
The aim of the present study was to explore sex life experiences in relation to sexual function and sexual relationships in men and women with early RA.
The study formed part of TIRA-2 (the Swedish acronym for the prospective multicentre early arthritis project). The data collection included 45 interviews with 21 men and 24 women, aged 20-63, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The critical incident technique was used to collect data, and content analysis to categorize the results.
Half the participants stated that RA affected their sex life. The general descriptions formed five categories: sex life and tiredness; sex life and ageing; emotional consequences of impaired sexual function; facilitators of sexual function and sexual relationships; and strain on the sexual relationship.