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Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264835
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):91-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen
Bo A G Jönsson
Jens Peter Bonde
David M Hougaard
Arieh Cohen
Christian H Lindh
Richard Ivell
Gunnar Toft
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):91-9
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amniotic Fluid - chemistry
Case-Control Studies
Cryptorchidism - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Diethylhexyl Phthalate - analysis
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - analysis
Humans
Hydrocortisone - analysis
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Immunoassay
Infant, Newborn
Insulin - analysis
Leydig Cells
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Phthalic Acids - analysis
Pregnancy
Proteins - analysis
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to phthalates may pose a threat to human male reproduction. However, additional knowledge about the in vivo effect in humans is needed, and reported associations with genital abnormalities are inconclusive. We aimed to study prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure in relation to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and human fetal Leydig cell function.
We studied 270 cryptorchidism cases, 75 hypospadias cases, and 300 controls. Second-trimester amniotic fluid samples were available from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank (n = 25,105) covering 1980-1996. We assayed metabolites of DEHP and DiNP (n = 645) and steroid hormones (n = 545) by mass spectrometry. We assayed insulin-like factor 3 by immunoassay (n = 475) and analyzed data using linear or logistic regression.
Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP, DEHP metabolite) was not consistently associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. However, we observed an 18% higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5%-33%) testosterone level, and a 41% lower (-56% to -21%) insulin-like factor 3 level in the highest 5cx-MEPP tertile compared with the lowest. Mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP, DiNP metabolite) showed elevated odds ratio point estimates for having cryptorchidism (odds ratio = 1.28 [95% CI = 0.80 to 2.01]) and hypospadias (1.69 [0.78 to 3.67]), but was not consistently associated with the steroid hormones or insulin-like factor 3.
Data on the DEHP metabolite indicate possible interference with human male fetal gonadal function. Considering the DiNP metabolite, we cannot exclude (nor statistically confirm) an association with hypospadias and, less strongly, with cryptorchidism.
PubMed ID
25384265 View in PubMed
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Association between pregnancy loss and urinary phthalate levels around the time of conception.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129391
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Mar;120(3):458-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Gunnar Toft
Bo A G Jönsson
Christian H Lindh
Tina Kold Jensen
Niels H Hjollund
Anne Vested
Jens Peter Bonde
Author Affiliation
Danish Ramazzini Center, Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. guntof@rm.dk
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Mar;120(3):458-63
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - chemically induced - epidemiology
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity - urine
Female
Fertilization
Humans
Phthalic Acids - metabolism - toxicity - urine
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
Animal studies indicate that some phthalate metabolites may harm female reproductive function.
We assessed the associations between exposure to phthalate metabolites and pregnancy loss.
Using a previously established cohort of couples planning their first pregnancy, we analyzed four primary and two oxidized secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected on day 10 after the first day of the last menstrual period before conception occurred (n = 128) and during the previous cycle (if any, n = 111). Subclinical embryonal loss was identified by repeated measurement of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin, and information on clinical spontaneous abortions was obtained by telephone interview with the mother.
Pregnancy loss (n = 48) was increased among women with urinary concentration of monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in the upper tertile in the conception sample compared with women in the lowest tertile [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 7.6]. The corresponding OR for subclinical embryonal loss (n = 32) was 40.7 (95% CI: 4.5, 369.5).
The phthalate metabolite MEHP was associated with higher occurrence of pregnancy loss. Because this is the first human study to show this association and the sample size is small, the findings need to be corroborated in independent studies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22113848 View in PubMed
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Association of maternal serum concentrations of 2,2', 4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels with birth weight, gestational age and preterm births in Inuit and European populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141020
Source
Environ Health. 2010;9:56
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Bogdan J Wojtyniak
Daniel Rabczenko
Bo A G Jönsson
Valentyna Zvezday
Henning S Pedersen
Lars Rylander
Gunnar Toft
Jan K Ludwicki
Katarzyna Góralczyk
Anna Lesovaya
Lars Hagmar
Jens Peter Bonde
Author Affiliation
Department-Centre of Monitoring and Analyses of Population Health, National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland. bogdan@pzh.gov.pl
Source
Environ Health. 2010;9:56
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Birth Weight - drug effects
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood - toxicity
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Gestational Age
Greenland
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood - toxicity
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature - growth & development
Inuits
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Poland
Pregnancy
Pregnant Women
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Ukraine
Abstract
Epidemiological studies on the association between maternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fetal growth alteration report inconsistent findings which weights in favor of additional studies.
Blood samples were collected from interviewed pregnant women in Greenland (572), Kharkiv (611) and Warsaw (258) and were analyzed for CB-153 and p,p'-DDE by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data on birth weight, gestational age and preterm birth were obtained for 1322 singleton live births. We examined the association between natural log-transformed serum POPs concentration and birth weight and gestational age using multiple linear regression and the association with prematurity using logistic regression controlling for potential confounding factors.
The median serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE were for Inuit mothers 105.6 and 298.9, for Kharkiv mothers 27.0 and 645.4 and for Warsaw mothers 10.7 and 365.2 ng/g lipids, respectively. Increase in CB-153 concentration by one unit on the log scale in Inuit mothers serum was associated with significant decrease in infant birth weight of -59 g and gestational age by -0.2 week. Decreases observed in the cohorts in Kharkiv (-10 g and -0.1 week) and in Warsaw (-49 g and -0.2 week) were not statistically significant. Increase in p,p'-DDE concentration by one unit on the log scale was associated with a statistically significant decrease in infant birth weight of -39.4 g and -104.3 g and shortening of gestational age of -0.2 week and -0.6 week in the Inuit and Warsaw cohorts, respectively. In the Kharkiv cohort decrease in birth weight (-30.5 g) was not significant, however a shortening of gestational age of -0.2 week per increase in p,p'-DDE concentration by one unit on the log scale was of the borderline significance. There was no significant association between CB-153 and p,p'-DDE concentrations and risk of preterm birth however, in all cohorts the odds ratio was above 1.
In utero exposure to POPs may reduce birth weight and gestational age of newborns however, new insights as to why results vary across studies were not apparent.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20819217 View in PubMed
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Associations of in utero exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids with human semen quality and reproductive hormones in adult men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116786
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Apr;121(4):453-8, 458e1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Anne Vested
Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
Sjurdur Frodi Olsen
Jens Peter Bonde
Susanne Lund Kristensen
Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson
Georg Becher
Line Småstuen Haug
Emil Hagen Ernst
Gunnar Toft
Author Affiliation
Danish Ramazzini Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. anneveed@rm.dk
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Apr;121(4):453-8, 458e1-5
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Caprylates - blood
Chromatography, Liquid
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Endocrine Disruptors - blood
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - blood
Humans
Linear Models
Luminescent Measurements
Male
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Semen - drug effects - physiology
Semen Analysis
Sperm Count
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Testis - anatomy & histology - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern.
We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels.
We recruited 169 male offspring (19-21 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1988-1989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30.
Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment.
The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23360585 View in PubMed
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Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141144
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Nov;21(6):779-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Cristina Rebordosa
Ane Marie Thulstrup
Gunnar Toft
Henrik Toft Sørensen
Jens Peter Bonde
Tine Brink Henriksen
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Departments of Obstetrics and Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark. morten@sondergaard-jensen.dk
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Nov;21(6):779-85
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaminophen - adverse effects
Adult
Aspirin - adverse effects
Cryptorchidism - chemically induced - epidemiology
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors - adverse effects
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Ibuprofen - adverse effects
Male
Maternal Exposure
Pregnancy
Abstract
Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors-acetaminophen, ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid-have endocrine-disruptive properties in the rainbow trout. In humans, aspirin blocks the androgen response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and, because hCG-stimulated androgen production in utero is crucial for normal testicular descent, exposure to COX inhibitors at vulnerable times during gestation may impair testicular descent. We examined whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism.
Our study used data on 47,400 live-born singleton sons of mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. Cryptorchidism was identified in 980 boys during childhood, of whom 565 underwent orchiopexy. The use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy was assessed in 3 computer-assisted telephone interviews and 1 self-administered questionnaire. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of cryptorchidism by Cox regression analysis.
Exposure to acetaminophen during both the first and second trimesters was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism (HR = 1.33 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.77]). Exposure for more than 4 weeks within the postulated time-window of programming testicular descent (gestational weeks 8-14) was associated with a HR of 1.38 (1.05-1.83) for cryptorchidism. Exposure to ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid was not associated with cryptorchidism.
Maternal intake of acetaminophen for more than 4 weeks during pregnancy, especially during the first and second trimesters, may moderately increase the occurrence of cryptorchidism.
PubMed ID
20805751 View in PubMed
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Phthalates and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid in human amniotic fluid: temporal trends and timing of amniocentesis in pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126355
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jun;120(6):897-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen
Gunnar Toft
David M Hougaard
Jens Peter Bonde
Arieh Cohen
Ane Marie Thulstrup
Richard Ivell
Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Christian H Lindh
Bo A G Jönsson
Author Affiliation
Danish Ramazzini Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. morten@sondergaard-jensen.dk
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jun;120(6):897-903
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis
Amniocentesis - methods
Amniotic Fluid - chemistry
Chromatography, Liquid
Denmark
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Gestational Age
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Phthalic Acids - analysis
Pregnancy
Abstract
Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability.
We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis.
We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models.
We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.37 ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05-0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66-1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8%, -2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational week of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity.
Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22398305 View in PubMed
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The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129658
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:100
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Pernille Gabel
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Helle Raun Andersen
Jesper Baelum
Ane Marie Thulstrup
Jens Peter Bonde
Gunnar Toft
Author Affiliation
Danish Ramazzini Center, Department of Occupational medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:100
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Agriculture
Child
Cohort Studies
Cryptorchidism - chemically induced - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Orchiopexy - statistics & numerical data
Pesticides - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism.
We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models.
Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4).
The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22082298 View in PubMed
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