Administrative discharge codes are widely used in epidemiology, but the specificity and sensitivity of this coding is unknown and must be validated. We assessed the validity of the discharge diagnosis of syncope in administrative registers and reviewed the etiology of syncope after workup.
Two samples were investigated. One sample consisted of 5262 randomly selected medical patients. The other sample consisted of 750 patients admitted or seen in the emergency department (ED) for syncope (ICD-10: R55.9) in three hospitals in Denmark. All charts were reviewed for baseline characteristics and to confirm the presence/absence of syncope and to compare with the administrative coding. In a sample of 600 admitted patients 570 (95%) and of 150 patients from ED 140 (93%) had syncope representing the positive predictive values. Median age of the population was 69 years (IQR: ± 14). In the second sample of 5262 randomly selected medical patients, 75 (1.4%) had syncope, of which 47 were coded as R55.9 yielding a sensitivity of 62.7%, a negative predictive value of 99.5%, and a specificity of 99.9%.
ED and hospital discharge diagnostic coding for syncope has a positive predictive value of 95% and a sensitivity of 63%.
The renin-angiotensin system is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) on human AAAs remain unclear. We therefore examined whether treatment with ACEIs or ARBs influenced hard clinical end points in a nation-wide cohort of patients with AAA.
All patients diagnosed with AAA during the period 1995 to 2011 were identified from the Danish nation-wide registries. Subjects were divided according to ACEI and ARB treatment status and followed up for an average of 5 years. Study outcomes were evaluated by time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models. Of 9441 patients with AAA, 12.6% were treated with ACEIs and 5.0% received ARBs. Incidence rates of death from AAA per 100 patient-years were 3.7, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.7 for treatment with ACEIs or ARBs, ACEIs, ARBs, and no ACEI/ARB, respectively. Hazard ratios of death from AAA were 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.80; P
Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and uveitis are inflammatory disorders with significant overlap in their inflammatory pathways. Limited evidence is available about the relationship between psoriatic disease and uveitis.
To investigate the potential bidirectional relationship between psoriatic disease, including psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and uveitis.
We performed a nationwide cohort study of the Danish population from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2011. We included 74,129 Danish patients with psoriasis who were 18 years or older during the study period. Patients were identified through administrative registries, and information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, medication, and comorbidity was obtained using individual-level linkage of administrative registers. We performed data analysis from January 27 through March 4, 2015.
Diagnosis of mild or severe psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis for uveitis risk and diagnosis of uveitis for the risk for psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis.
Diagnosis of uveitis, mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, or psoriatic arthritis. We calculated incidence rates (IRs) and estimated IR ratios adjusted for potential confounders using Poisson regression.
We identified 74,129 cases of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and 13,114 cases of uveitis. The IRs (95% CIs) for uveitis were 2.02 (1.99-2.06), 2.88 (2.33-3.56), 4.23 (2.40-7.45), and 5.49 (3.36-8.96) for the reference population and those with mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. In the reference population, these IRs (95% CIs) were 9.37 (9.30-9.45), 1.12 (1.10-1.15), and 1.04 (1.01-1.06), and in patients with uveitis, these statistics were 15.51 (12.92-18.62), 2.66 (1.72-4.13), and 4.25 (3.00-6.01) for mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. Adjusted IR ratios (95% CIs) for uveitis were 1.38 (1.11-1.70 [P?=?.02]), 1.40 (0.70-2.81 [P?=?.34]), and 2.50 (1.53-4.08 [P?
Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup (C.M.H., M.W., P.W., M.H.R., M.L., G.H.G., F.F.); Emergency Medical Services, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark and Copenhagen University (F.K.L., S.L.N.); National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen (G.H.G.); The Heart Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (L.K.); and Institute of Health, Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg (C.T.-P.), Denmark.
Despite wide dissemination, use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community settings is limited. We assessed how AED accessibility affected coverage of cardiac arrests in public locations.
We identified cardiac arrests in public locations (1994-2011) in terms of location and time and viewed them in relation to the location and accessibility of all AEDs linked to the emergency dispatch center as of December 31, 2011, in Copenhagen, Denmark. AED coverage of cardiac arrests was defined as cardiac arrests within 100 m (109.4 yd) of an AED and further categorized according to AED accessibility at the time of cardiac arrest. Daytime, evening, and nighttime were defined as 8 am to 3:59 pm, 4 to 11:59 pm, and midnight to 7:59 am, respectively. Of 1864 cardiac arrests in public locations, 61.8% (n=1152) occurred during the evening, nighttime, or weekends. Of 552 registered AEDs, 9.1% (n=50) were accessible at all hours, and 96.4% (n=532) were accessible during the daytime on all weekdays. Regardless of AED accessibility, 28.8% (537 of 1864) of all cardiac arrests were covered by an AED. Limited AED accessibility decreased coverage of cardiac arrests by 4.1% (9 of 217) during the daytime on weekdays and by 53.4% (171 of 320) during the evening, nighttime, and weekends.
Limited AED accessibility at the time of cardiac arrest decreased AED coverage by 53.4% during the evening, nighttime, and weekends, which is when 61.8% of all cardiac arrests in public locations occurred. Thus, not only strategic placement but also uninterrupted AED accessibility warrant attention if public-access defibrillation is to improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Bleeding after initiation of multiple antithrombotic drugs, including triple therapy, in atrial fibrillation patients following myocardial infarction and coronary intervention: a nationwide cohort study.
Uncertainty remains over optimal antithrombotic treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation presenting with myocardial infarction and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated the risk and time frame for bleeding following myocardial infarction/percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with atrial fibrillation according to antithrombotic treatment.
Patients with atrial fibrillation and admitted with myocardial infarction or for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2000 and 2009 (11 480 subjects, mean age 75.6 years [SD ±10.3], males 60.9%) were identified by individual level linkage of nationwide registries in Denmark. Fatal or nonfatal (requiring hospitalization) bleeding was determined according to antithrombotic treatment regimen: triple therapy (TT) with vitamin K antagonist (VKA)+aspirin+clopidogrel, VKA+antiplatelet, and dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin+clopidogrel. We calculated crude incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios by Cox regression models. Within 1 year, 728 bleeding events were recorded (6.3%); 79 were fatal (0.7%). Within 30 days, rates were 22.6, 20.3, and 14.3 bleeding events per 100 person-years for TT, VKA+antiplatelet, and dual antiplatelet therapy, respectively. Both early (within 90 days) and delayed (90-360 days) bleeding risk with TT exposure in relation to VKA+antiplatelet was increased; hazard ratio 1.47 (1.04;2.08) and 1.36 (0.95;1.95), respectively. No significant difference in thromboembolic risk was observed for TT versus VKA+antiplatelet; hazard ratio, 1.15 (0.95;1.40).
High risk of bleeding is immediately evident with TT after myocardial infarction/percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with atrial fibrillation. A continually elevated risk associated with TT indicates no safe therapeutic window, and TT should only be prescribed after thorough bleeding risk assessment of patients.
Cardioversion can rapidly and effectively restore sinus rhythm in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Since 2011 dabigatran has been available as an alternative to warfarin to prevent thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation undergoing cardioversion. We studied time to cardioversion, risk of adverse events, and risk of readmission with atrial fibrillation after cardioversion according to anticoagulation therapy.
Through the nationwide Danish registries we included 1,230 oral anticoagulation naïve patients with first time non-valvular atrial fibrillation and first time cardioversion from 2011 to 2012; 37% in the dabigatran group (n = 456), and 63% in the warfarin group (n = 774). Median time to cardioversion was 4.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.9 to 6.5) and 6.9 (IQR 3.9 to 12.1) weeks in the dabigatran and warfarin groups respectively, and the adjusted odds ratio of cardioversion within the first 4 weeks was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 3.1) in favor of dabigatran. The cumulative incidence of composite endpoint of stroke, bleeding or death were 2.0% and 1.0% at 30 weeks in the warfarin and dabigatran groups respectively, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI 0.33 to 5.42). Cumulative incidence of readmission with atrial fibrillation after 30 weeks were 9% and 11% in the warfarin and dabigatran groups, respectively, and an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% CI 0.41 to 1.08).
Anticoagulation treatment with dabigatran allows shorter time to cardioversion for atrial fibrillation than warfarin, and appears to be an effective and safe alternative treatment strategy to warfarin.
Rosacea is a common inflammatory skin condition that shares genetic risk loci with autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease. A recent genomewide association study identified 90 genetic regions associated with T1DM, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, and/or rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. However, a possible association with rosacea was not investigated.
We evaluated the association between rosacea and T1DM, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively.
We performed a population-based case-control study. A total of 6759 patients with rosacea were identified and matched with 33,795 control subjects on age, sex, and calendar time. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
After adjustment for smoking and socioeconomic status, patients with rosacea had significantly increased ORs for T1DM (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.41-4.73), celiac disease (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.35-3.07), multiple sclerosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20-2.28), and rheumatoid arthritis (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.82-2.52). The association was mainly observed in women.
We were unable to distinguish between the different subtypes and severities of rosacea.
Rosacea is associated with T1DM, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively, in women, whereas the association in men only reached statistical significance for rheumatoid arthritis.
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark; Division of Cardiology, Heart Research Follow-up Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Recurrent syncope is a major cause of hospitalizations and may be associated with cardiovascular co-morbidities. Despite this, prognostic factors and the clinical characteristics among patients are not well described. Therefore, we identified and analyzed data on all patients >50 years of age discharged after a first-time episode of syncope in the period 2001 to 2009 through nationwide administrative registries. We identified the clinical characteristics of 5,141 patients =85 years of age and 23,454 patients
Long-term prognostic impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity in stable post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients is not well known. We examined the impact of CAD severity and co-morbidity on the long-term (1 year and beyond) risk of cardiovascular events post-MI.
From nationwide administrative and clinical registers, we identified 55?747?MI patients, during 2004-2010, who had not experienced subsequent MI, stroke, or death within 7 days post-discharge. The risk for primary composite endpoint (MI, stroke, or cardiovascular death) was estimated for the first 365 days after MI (index MI) and from day 366 to study completion (stable post-MI population), corresponding to a mean follow-up of 3.6 (2.2) years. Risk was assessed using cumulative incidence, multivariable adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models. The 1-year cumulative incidence for primary endpoint was 20.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), (19.6-20.3)]. Correspondingly, the 4-year cumulative incidence for primary endpoint was 21.0% (95% CI, 20.6-21.4) in patients without events on the first year. In multivariable models with no significant stenosis as reference, CAD severity was the most important risk factor for cardiovascular events the first 365 days [left main stenosis (LMS): odds ratio and 95% CI, 4.37, 3.69-5.17; 3-vessel disease (VD), 4.18, 3.66-4.77; 2-VD, 3.23, 2.81-3.72; 1-VD, 2.12,-1.85-2.43] and remained from day 366 to study completion [LMS: hazard ratio and 95% CI, 1.91, 1.64-2.22; 3-VD, 1.85,1.65-2.07; 2-VD, 1.55, 1.38-1.74; 1-VD, 1.30, 1.16-1.45].
Despite contemporary treatment at baseline, stable post-MI patients' 4-year outcome was similar to 1-year outcome after MI, and CAD severity remained a critical risk factor the first year and thereafter.
To assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in women who discontinue hormone replacement therapy after myocardial infarction compared with those who continue.
Nationwide register based cohort study.
All hospitals in Denmark.
All 3322 women aged 40 years or over who survived 30 days after a myocardial infarction and were prescribed hormone replacement therapy at the time of myocardial infarction in the period 1997 to 2008.
Reinfarction, cardiovascular mortality, and all cause mortality 30 to 360 days after discharge.:
A total of 282 (8.5%) women had a reinfarction, 218 (6.6%) died of cardiovascular causes, and 357 (10.7%) died of any cause during follow-up. Women who discontinued overall hormone replacement therapy in the first year after myocardial infarction did not have a significantly different risk of reinfarction (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.19), cardiovascular mortality (1.21, 0.90 to 1.62), or all cause mortality (1.22, 0.97 to 1.53) than women who continued use. However, discontinuation of vaginal oestrogen was associated with a lower risk of reinfarction (hazard ratio 0.54, 0.34 to 0.86).
No certain conclusions can be drawn regarding increased or decreased risk of adverse cardiovascular events with continuing hormone replacement therapy after myocardial infarction. The results rule out neither a modest benefit nor a worrisome increase in risk. These figures may be valuable when a possible cardiovascular risk of hormone replacement therapy needs to be balanced with menopausal symptoms for the individual patient.
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