An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age.
Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin.
948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D =8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications.
At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948) reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0-17), 541 participants (57%) had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.96). Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.74).
Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation.
Recent evidence suggests a role for diet quality in the common mental disorders depression and anxiety. We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality, dietary patterns, and the common mental disorders in Norwegian adults.
This cross-sectional study included 5731 population-based men and women aged 46 to 49 and 70 to 74 years. Habitual diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and mental health was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
After adjustments for variables including age, education, income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, an a priori healthy diet quality score was inversely related to depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-0.84) and anxiety (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.68-0.87) in women and to depression (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.99) in men. Women scoring higher on a healthy dietary pattern were less likely to be depressed (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.82) or anxious (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98), whereas men were more likely to be anxious (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03-1.38). A traditional Norwegian dietary pattern was also associated with reduced depression in women (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92) and anxiety in men (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61-0.96). A western-type diet was associated with increased anxiety in men (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.14-1.42) and women (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.17-1.43) before final adjustment for energy intake.
In this study, those with better quality diets were less likely to be depressed, whereas a higher intake of processed and unhealthy foods was associated with increased anxiety.
Risk of stillbirth evaluated by Poisson regression.
Mean (SD) length of follow-up was 5.5 (3.5) years. In analyses adjusting for baseline age and length of follow-up, =3 hours of baseline past-year vigorous physical activity per week (resulting in shortness of breath/sweating) was associated with increased risk of stillbirth compared with 18.5?and
PURPOSE: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in the metabolism of folate and homocysteine; a polymorphism in the MTHFR gene (677C-->T) has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy. We studied whether two polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene (677C-->T and 1298A-->C) are associated with pregnancy complications, adverse outcomes, and birth defects. METHODS: MTHFR polymorphisms were determined in blood collected in 1992 and 1993 from 5883 women aged 40 to 42 years, and linked with 14,492 pregnancies in the same women recorded in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway from 1967 to 1996. RESULTS: The 677TT genotype in mothers was associated with increased risk of placental abruption (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the CC variant. The risk of intrauterine growth restriction increased with number of T alleles (P for trend = 0.04). Compared with the 1298AA variant, the CC variant was associated with a reduced risk of very low birth weight infants (OR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.8). No significant associations were found between MTHFR polymorphisms and birth defects. CONCLUSION: The maternal MTHFR 677C-->T polymorphism was a risk factor for placental abruption. The unexpected protective effect of the 1298A-->C polymorphism on very low birth weight needs further study.
Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated.
To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress.
A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6). Biomarkers included n-3 fatty acids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The K6 screens for psychological distress over the last 30 days with six items scored on a 4-point scale. A total score of 13 or more indicates serious psychological distress (SPD). Logistic regression models were used to investigate any associations between SPD and biomarkers while controlling for age, gender, marital status, days spent out on the land, feeling of being alone, income and smoking.
The 30-day SPD prevalence was 11.2%, with women below 30 years having the highest and men 50 years and more having the lowest SPD prevalence at 16.1% and 2.6%, respectively. SPD was associated with being female, younger age, not being married or with a common-law partner, spending few days out on the land, feelings of being alone, smoking and low income. Low levels of both 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds for SPD in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models.
In this cross-sectional analysis, low levels of 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds ratios for SPD, which highlights the potential impact of traditional foods on mental health and wellbeing. Cultural practices are also important for mental health and it may be that the biomarkers serve as proxies for cultural activities related to food collection, sharing and consumption that increase both biomarker levels and psychological well-being.
While the overall incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Norway decreased in 2001-2009, this was not observed for younger adults. Smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy diet are associated with reduced risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with established coronary heart disease (CHD).
We investigated whether adults in their 40s with or without CHD had 1) attempted to improve their health behaviour during the previous year, and 2) had confidence in their ability to improve their health behaviour over the next five years.
Study participants were 22,019 40-49 year olds from the Hordaland Health Study. Associations between improvements and intentions regarding health behaviours and prevalent CHD were assessed with logistic regression analyses.
One hundred and seventy-five (0.8%) participants reported to have CHD. After controlling for demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial variables, attempts to improve health behaviour during the prior year were associated with a threefold increased odds of prevalent CHD (odds ratio 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-4.95). Confidence in improving health behaviour during the subsequent five years was not associated with increased odds of prevalent CHD.
Adults in their 40s with CHD were more likely to have attempted to improve their health behaviour during the past year compared with those without CHD. Healthcare providers should take advantage of these positive attitudes to encourage further positive improvements.
The reasons for decreasing birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in several European countries and Canada are not fully understood. We present CHD prevalence among live births, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies in an entire nation over a period of 16 years.
Information on all births in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1994-2009, was updated with information on CHD from the hospitals' Patient Administrative Systems, the National Hospital's clinical database for children with heart disease, and the Cause of Death Registry. Individuals with heart defects were assigned specific cardiac phenotypes.
Among 954,413 births, 13,081 received a diagnosis of CHD (137.1 per 10,000 births, 133.2 per 10,000 live births). The prevalence per 10,000 births was as follows: heterotaxia, 1.6; conotruncal defects, 11.6; atrioventricular septal defects, 5.6; anomalous pulmonary venous return, 1.1; left outflow obstructions, 8.7; right outflow obstructions, 5.6; septal defects, 65.5; isolated patent ductus arteriosus, 24.6; and other specified or unspecified CHD, 12.7. Excluding preterm patent ductus arteriosus, the CHD prevalence was 123.4 per 10,000; per year, the prevalence increased with 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.4) in 1994-2005 and declined with 9.8% (-16.7 to -2.4) from 2005 onwards. Severe CHD prevalence was 30.7 per 10,000; per-year increase was 2.3% (1.1-3.5) in 1994-2004, and per-year decrease was 3.4% (-6.6 to -0.0) in 2004-2009. Numbers included severe CHD in stillbirths and terminated pregnancies.
The birth prevalence of CHD declined from around 2005. Specifically, the prevalence of severe CHD was reduced by 3.4% per year from 2004 through 2009.
Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The primary aim of the present study was to describe sex differences in incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease leading to hospitalisation in a complete cohort of genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia patients. Design and methods In this registry study data on 5538 patients with verified genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia were linked to data on all Norwegian cardiovascular disease hospitalisations, and hospitalisations due to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, congenital heart defects and diabetes. Results During 1994-2009 a total of 1411 of familial hypercholesterolaemia patients were hospitalised, and ischaemic heart disease was reported in 90% of them. Mean (SD) age at first hospitalisation and first re-hospitalisation was 45.1 (16.5) and 47.6 (16.3) years, respectively, with no sex differences ( P?=?0.66 and P?=?0.93, respectively). More men (26.9%) than women (24.1%) with familial hypercholesterolaemia were hospitalised ( P?=?0.02). The median (25th-75th percentile) number of hospital admissions was four (two to seven) per familial hypercholesterolaemia patient, with no sex differences ( P?=?0.87). Despite having familial hypercholesterolaemia at the time of hospitalisation, the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia was registered in only 45.7% of the patients at discharge. Conclusion Most cardiovascular disease hospitalisations were due to ischaemic heart disease. Familial hypercholesterolaemia patients were first time hospitalised at age 45.1 years, with no significant sex differences in age, which are important novel findings. The awareness and registration of the familial hypercholesterolaemia diagnosis during the hospital stays were disturbingly low.