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Cardiovascular burden and related risk factors among Nunavik (Quebec) Inuit: insights from baseline findings in the circumpolar Inuit health in transition cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96676
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Jun;26(6):190-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat
Eric Dewailly
Rabia Louchini
Emilie Counil
Martin Noël
Annie Ferland
Michel Lucas
Béatriz Valera
Jean-Marie Ekoé
Robert Ladouceur
S. Déry
Grace Egeland
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. marie-ludivine.chateau-degat@crchul.ulaval.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Jun;26(6):190-6
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - ethnology - etiology
Diet
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Transition
Humans
Incidence
Inuits
Life Style
Male
Obesity - complications - ethnology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - ethnology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Inuit are commonly portrayed to be somehow protected from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through their traditional lifestyle and diet. However, actual sociocultural transition and related major, modifiable risk factors have scarcely been quantified in the Inuit population. Such knowledge is extremely valuable in terms of public health intervention.METHODS: A total of 887 Inuit residents from Nunavik, Quebec, participated in a cohort study. The estimates presented were derived from anthropometric and biological measurements gathered at the time of recruitment and enhanced by information collected in the medical file of each participant. All estimates were corrected for a complex sampling strategy and bootstrapped to ensure the representativeness of the general Nunavik population.RESULTS: Overall, 19% of Inuit had a disease of the circulatory system according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision. Among all disorders, peripheral circulatory system disease was the most prevalent (9%). Prevalences of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were of similar magnitude (2.5%). No significant difference in disease prevalence was noted between sexes. The major modifiable CVD risk factors were smoking (84%), obesity (49%) (body mass index of greater than 30 kgm2) and elevated blood pressure (13085 mmHg or greater) (18%). Prevalences were globally higher among women.CONCLUSION: The current belief that the Inuit are protected from CVD is seriously questioned by the results of the present study. Considering the extremely high prevalence of CVD risk factors, a population-based intervention reinforced for women is urgently needed to reduce their risk.
PubMed ID
20548980 View in PubMed
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Design and methods of the Adult Inuit Health Survey 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118814
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Helga Saudny
Donna Leggee
Grace Egeland
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition/Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment-CINE, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Canada. helga.saudny-unterberger@mcgill.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Bone Density
Chronic Disease - ethnology
Clinical Laboratory Techniques - methods
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disease Progression
Electrocardiography, Ambulatory
Glucose Tolerance Test
Health Surveys - instrumentation - methods
Hemoglobins - analysis
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Nails - chemistry
Nunavut - epidemiology
Physical Examination - methods
Research Design
Selenium - analysis
Abstract
The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut.
The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities.
The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut.
Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23166895 View in PubMed
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Food security in Nunavut, Canada: barriers and recommendations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165008
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Hing Man Chan
Karen Fediuk
Sue Hamilton
Laura Rostas
Amy Caughey
Harriet Kuhnlein
Grace Egeland
Eric Loring
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Canada. lchan@unbc.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-31
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Humans
Income
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
The food supply of Inuit living in Nunavut, Canada, is characterized by market food of relatively low nutritional value and nutrient-dense traditional food. The objective of this study is to assess community perceptions about the availability and accessibility of traditional and market foods in Nunavut.
A qualitative study using focus group methodology.
Focus groups were conducted in 6 communities in Nunavut in 2004 and collected information was analyzed.
Barriers to increased traditional food consumption included high costs of hunting and changes in lifestyle and cultural practices. Participants suggested that food security could be gained through increased economic support for local community hunts, freezers and education programs, as well as better access to cheaper and higher quality market food.
Interventions to improve the dietary quality of Nunavut residents are discussed.
PubMed ID
17319086 View in PubMed
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Forearm bone mineral density varies as a function of adiposity in inuit women 40-90 years of age during the vitamin D-synthesizing period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125476
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 May;90(5):384-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Jessy El Hayek
Amy Pronovost
Suzanne Morin
Grace Egeland
Hope Weiler
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Ste Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada.
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 May;90(5):384-95
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adult
Aged
Bone Density
Female
Forearm - physiopathology
Humans
Inuits
Middle Aged
Vitamin D - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - ethnology
Abstract
Aging Inuit women are at increased risk for low vitamin D status due to habitation at higher latitudes, darker skin, and ongoing nutrition transition. Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and higher risk of fracture have been separately reported in Inuit women, with particular relevance to postmenopausal women. We evaluated vitamin D status, forearm bone mineral density (fBMD), and nutrition in Inuit women =40 years. Women (n = 568) were randomly selected to participate in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey from 36 Arctic communities. fBMD was measured using peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were derived from 24 h recall and food-frequency questionnaires. Fasting serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, and osteocalcin (OC) were measured using a LIAISON(®) automated analyzer. The weighted prevalence of women having 25(OH)D concentration below 37.5, 50, and 75 nmol/L was 7.2 %, 17.6 %, and 48.6 %, respectively, with older women having better status. The dietary density of most nutrients increased with age, as did traditional food intake. fBMD was low in 3 (1.4 %) premenopausal (Z score 
PubMed ID
22476266 View in PubMed
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Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122665
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18999
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Jessy El Hayek
Grace Egeland
Hope Weiler
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18999
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Arctic Regions
Body mass index
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Child, Preschool
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated - administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Nutrition Assessment
Quebec
Ultrasonography - standards
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32'-72° 40'N).
Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.).
Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS.
Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22789515 View in PubMed
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Older age and lower adiposity predict better 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration in Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121692
Source
Arch Osteoporos. 2011 Dec;6(1-2):167-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Jessy El Hayek
Grace Egeland
Hope Weiler
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada.
Source
Arch Osteoporos. 2011 Dec;6(1-2):167-77
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adult
Aging - blood
Arctic Regions
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Seafood - statistics & numerical data
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in Inuit adults. Low 25(OH)D concentration (
PubMed ID
22886103 View in PubMed
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Vitamin D Status of Inuit Preschoolers Reflects Season and Vitamin D Intake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99252
Source
J Nutr. 2010 Aug 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-11-2010
Author
Jessy El Hayek
Grace Egeland
Hope Weiler
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal H9X 3V9, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2010 Aug 11;
Date
Aug-11-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Rickets ascribed to hypovitaminosis D remains a public health concern among Aboriginal children in Canada and the United States. Our primary objective in this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors (gender, age, vitamin D intake, and socioeconomic status) for low vitamin D status of Inuit preschoolers living in 16 Arctic communities (51 degrees N-70 degrees N) and participating in the 2007-2008 Nunavut Child Inuit Health Survey. Children were selected randomly in summer (n = 282) and a follow-up was performed in winter for a subsample (n = 52). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall and a FFQ. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight) were assessed. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (
PubMed ID
20702752 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.