The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
Lung cancer survivors exhibit poor functional capacity, physical functioning, and quality of life (QoL). Here, we report the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) intervention in post-treatment lung cancer survivors. Seventeen post-treatment lung cancer survivors (10 female), with a mean age of 67 (range 50-85), mean BMI of 25, and diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (94%) were recruited in Edmonton, Canada between August 2009 and August 2010 to undergo PRET. The primary outcomes focused on feasibility including eligibility and recruitment rate, loss to follow-up, measurement completion, exercise adherence, and program evaluation. Secondary outcomes addressed preliminary efficacy and included changes in muscular strength (1 repetition maximum), muscular endurance (repetitions at 70% of 1 repetition maximum), body composition (DXA scan), physical functioning (6-minute-walk-test, up-and-go, sit-to-stand, arm curls), and patient-reported outcomes including QoL (SF-36, FACT-L), fatigue (FACT-F), dyspnea (MRCD), and patient-rated function (LLFI). Forty of 389 lung cancer survivors were eligible (10%) and 17 of the 40 (43%) were recruited. Over 80% of participants were able to complete all testing; two participants were lost to follow-up, and the median adherence rate was 96% (range: 25-100%). Ratings of testing burden were low (i.e., less than two out of seven for all items), and trial evaluation was high (i.e., greater than six out of seven for all measures). Paired t-tests showed significant increases in muscular strength (p
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles were fed either 100% fish oil (FO), 75% vegetable oil (VO), or 100% VO throughout their life cycle to harvest weight followed by a finishing diet period when all groups were fed 100% FO. The two experimental VO diets were tested at two different locations (Scotland and Norway) against the same control diet (100% FO). The VO blend was composed of rapeseed oil, palm oil, and linseed oil using capelin oil as a control for fatty acid class compositions. Flesh fatty acid profiles were measured regularly throughout the experiment, with the times of sampling determined by changes in pellet size/lipid content and fish life stage. Growth and mortality rates were not significantly affected by dietary fatty acid compositions throughout the life cycle, except during the seawater winter period in Norway when both growth and protein utilization were increased in salmon fed 100% VO compared to 100% FO. Flesh fatty acid composition was highly influenced by that of the diet, and after the finishing diet period the weekly intake recommendations of very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCn-3 PUFA) for human health were 80 and 56% satisfied by a 200 g meal of 75% VO and 100% VO flesh, respectively. No effect on flesh astaxanthin levels was observed in relation to changing dietary oil sources. Sensory evaluation showed only minor differences between salmon flesh from the dietary groups, although prior to the finishing diet period, flesh from 100% VO had less rancid and marine characteristics and was preferred over flesh from the other dietary groups by a trained taste panel. After the finishing diet period, the levels of typical vegetable oil fatty acids in flesh were reduced, whereas those of VLCn-3 PUFA increased to levels comparable with a 100% FO fed salmon. No differences in any of the sensory characteristics were observed between dietary groups. By blending VOs to provide balanced levels of dietary fatty acids, up to 100% of the fish oil can be replaced by the VO blend without compromising growth or flesh quality. At the same time, 75% of the dietary fish oil can be replaced without compromising flesh VLCn-3 PUFA content, thereby providing a beneficial nutritional profile for human consumption.
To determine the total amount and relative time periods of face immersion (FI) in a synchronized swimming solo routine and the relationship between FI, distance covered, and the technical-merit score of the 11 top Canadian soloists at a synchronized swimming national championship (mean age 20 +/- 1.8 y, height 173.3 +/- 4.1 cm, and body mass 58.3 +/- 4 kg).
Videotape and timing of solo performances combined with manual tracking of pool patterns.
Analysis of performance revealed that an average of 18 FI periods, mean of 6.8 s, were performed for an average total time of 133.7 +/- 27.1 s (range 102.2 to 199.8 s). The average longest FI time period was 25.45 +/- 6.2 s (range 18.18 to 38.72 s), and most (10/11) of these were in the first third of the solo. The mean total horizontal distance covered was 57.61 +/- 6.84 m (range 48.61 to 68.2 m), and the total horizontal distance covered relative to time was 0.276 +/- 0.034 m/s (range 0.235 to 0.340 m/s). No significant relationships were found between any of the FI periods and the distance covered or between the technical-merit score and FI periods. Each solo contained 6 to 8 underwater sequences, none of which were longer than 40 seconds, the cutoff deemed dangerous by FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation).
This study shows that the times underwater for solos in Canada are within safety limits recommended by FINA and that judging in Canada is not related to underwater periods of swimming.