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Coxiella burnetii exposure in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267029
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-11-2015
Author
Colleen Duncan
Verena A Gill
Kristin Worman
Kathy Burek-Huntington
Kristy L Pabilonia
Sam Johnson
Kelly A Fitzpatrick
Christina Weller
Gilbert J Kersh
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Date
May-11-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Coxiella burnetii
Endocarditis, Bacterial - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Female
Male
Otters
Q Fever - epidemiology - veterinary
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Valvular endocarditis has been well described in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni of Alaska and in many cases no cause has been identified. It is also one of the most common conditions observed in people with chronic Coxiella burnetii infection. Given the high levels of C. burnetii exposure in marine mammals distributed throughout the same geographic range as the northern sea otter, and the presence of valvular lesions seen in otters, the objective of this study was to determine the level of C. burnetii exposure in otters and investigate any association between exposure, infection and valvular disease in this species. Archived serum from 75 live captured, apparently healthy otters (25 from each of 3 stocks) and 30 dead otters were tested for C. burnetii antibodies by indirect florescent antibody assay (IFA). Archived bone marrow and heart valves were tested for C. burnetii DNA by real-time PCR (qPCR). Overall, the seroprevalence in live otters was 17%, with significantly more exposed animals in the south central (40%) stock relative to the southwest (8%) and southeast (4%). The seroprevalence of animals sampled post mortem was 27%, although none of the bone marrow or heart valve samples were positive by qPCR. Results of this study failed to demonstrate a significant association between C. burnetii infection and valvular endocarditis in sea otters; however, the differing seroprevalence suggests that exposure opportunities vary geographically.
PubMed ID
25958809 View in PubMed
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Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) placentas from St. Paul Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130279
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Mar;12(3):192-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Colleen Duncan
Gilbert J Kersh
Terry Spraker
Kelly A Patyk
Kelly A Fitzpatrick
Robert F Massung
Tom Gelatt
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524, USA. colleen.duncan@colostate.edu
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Mar;12(3):192-5
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Coxiella burnetii - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Female
Fur Seals - microbiology
Humans
Islands
Placenta - microbiology - pathology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Prevalence
Q Fever - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Abstract
The decline in the number of northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, has led to multidisciplinary research, including investigation into issues of reproductive health and success. Given the recent identification of Coxiella burnetii in the placenta of two other marine mammal species, NFS placentas were collected from Reef rookery on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during the 2010 pupping season, examined histologically, and tested for C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 146 placentas examined, gram-negative intratrophoblastic bacteria that were positive for C. burnetii on immunohistochemistry were observed in 5 (3%) placentas. Placental infection was usually devoid of associated inflammation or significant ancillary pathology. One hundred nine (75%) of the placentas were positive for C. burnetii on PCR. C. burnetii is globally distributed and persists for long periods in the environment, providing ample opportunity for exposure of many species. The significance of this finding for the declining fur seal population, potential human exposure and infection, and impact on other sympatric marine mammal or terrestrial species is unclear; further investigation into the epidemiology of Coxiella in the marine ecosystem is warranted.
Notes
Erratum In: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 May;14(5):382
PubMed ID
22017469 View in PubMed
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Human Seroprevalence to 11 Zoonotic Pathogens in the U.S. Arctic, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298315
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 Feb 21; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-21-2019
Author
Karen M Miernyk
Dana Bruden
Alan J Parkinson
Debby Hurlburt
Joseph Klejka
James Berner
Robyn A Stoddard
Sukwan Handali
Patricia P Wilkins
Gilbert J Kersh
Kelly Fitzpatrick
Mike A Drebot
Jeffrey W Priest
Ryan Pappert
Jeannine M Petersen
Eyasu Teshale
Thomas W Hennessy
Michael G Bruce
Author Affiliation
1 Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska.
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 Feb 21; :
Date
Feb-21-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Due to their close relationship with the environment, Alaskans are at risk for zoonotic pathogen infection. One way to assess a population's disease burden is to determine the seroprevalence of pathogens of interest. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of 11 zoonotic pathogens in people living in Alaska.
In a 2007 avian influenza exposure study, we recruited persons with varying wild bird exposures. Using sera from this study, we tested for antibodies to Cryptosporidium spp., Echinococcus spp., Giardia intestinalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, California serogroup bunyaviruses, and hepatitis E virus (HEV).
Eight hundred eighty-seven persons had sera tested, including 454 subsistence bird hunters and family members, 160 sport bird hunters, 77 avian wildlife biologists, and 196 persons with no wild bird exposure. A subset (n?=?481) of sera was tested for California serogroup bunyaviruses. We detected antibodies to 10/11 pathogens. Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp. (29%), California serotype bunyaviruses (27%), and G. intestinalis (19%) was the most common; 63% (301/481) of sera had antibodies to at least one pathogen. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, Cryptosporidium spp. seropositivity was higher in females (35.7% vs. 25.0%; p?=?0.01) and G. intestinalis seropositivity was higher in males (21.8% vs. 15.5%; p?=?0.02). Alaska Native persons were more likely than non-Native persons to be seropositive to C. burnetii (11.7% vs. 3.8%; p?=?0.005) and less likely to be seropositive to HEV (0.4% vs. 4.1%; p?=?0.01). Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp., C. burnetii, HEV, and Echinococcus granulosus was associated with increasing age (p?=?0.01 for all) as was seropositivity to =1 pathogen (p?
PubMed ID
30789314 View in PubMed
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