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Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142408
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E959-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-6-2011
Author
Laurence J Kirmayer
Lavanya Narasiah
Marie Munoz
Meb Rashid
Andrew G Ryder
Jaswant Guzder
Ghayda Hassan
Cécile Rousseau
Kevin Pottie
Author Affiliation
Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Que. laurence.kirmayer@mcgill.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E959-67
Date
Sep-6-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Cultural Characteristics
Emigrants and Immigrants
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Language
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Prevalence
Primary Health Care
Refugees
Risk factors
Abstract
Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care.
We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health.
The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations.
Systematic inquiry into patients' migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally appropriate indicators of social, vocational and family functioning over time will allow clinicians to recognize problems in adaptation and undertake mental health promotion, disease prevention or treatment interventions in a timely way.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20603342 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ethnic and religious discrimination: the multifaceted role of religiosity and collective self-esteem.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108478
Source
Transcult Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;50(4):475-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Ghayda Hassan
Cécile Rousseau
Nicolas Moreau
Author Affiliation
University of Quebec at Montreal.
Source
Transcult Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;50(4):475-92
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Arabs - ethnology - psychology
Depression - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Ethnic Groups - psychology
Female
Haiti - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prejudice - psychology
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Religion
Self Concept
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study analyses the roles of collective self-esteem and religiosity in the relationship between discrimination and psychological distress among a sample of 432 recent immigrants from Haiti and Arab countries living in Montreal, Quebec. Collective self-esteem (CSE), religiosity, discriminatory experiences, and psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed. Regression analyses revealed direct negative effects of discrimination, CSE, and religiosity on psychological distress for the entire sample. CSE, however, also appeared to moderate the effects of discrimination on psychological distress. Participants with higher CSE reported lower levels of anxiety and depression as a result of discrimination compared to those who expressed lower CSE levels. The results suggest that the relationship between CSE, discrimination, and psychological distress must be reexamined in light of recent sociopolitical changes and the upsurge in ethnic and religious tensions following the war on terror.
PubMed ID
23883587 View in PubMed
Less detail

Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143020
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E824-925
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-6-2011
Author
Kevin Pottie
Christina Greenaway
John Feightner
Vivian Welch
Helena Swinkels
Meb Rashid
Lavanya Narasiah
Laurence J Kirmayer
Erin Ueffing
Noni E MacDonald
Ghayda Hassan
Mary McNally
Kamran Khan
Ralf Buhrmann
Sheila Dunn
Arunmozhi Dominic
Anne E McCarthy
Anita J Gagnon
Cécile Rousseau
Peter Tugwell
Author Affiliation
kpottie@uottawa.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E824-925
Date
Sep-6-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Emigrants and Immigrants
Evidence-Based Medicine
Female
Health services needs and demand
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - standards
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Refugees
Risk factors
Notes
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E926-720530162
PubMed ID
20530168 View in PubMed
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North African and Latin American parents' and adolescents' perceptions of physical discipline and physical abuse: when dysnormativity begets exclusion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153390
Source
Child Welfare. 2009;88(6):5-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Ghayda Hassan
Cécile Rousseau
Author Affiliation
University of Québec at Montreal, Department of Psychology, Quebec. hassan.ghadya@uqam.ca
Source
Child Welfare. 2009;88(6):5-22
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Africa, Northern - ethnology
Arabs
Attitude - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse - ethnology
Christianity
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Female
Humans
Islam
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Parenting - ethnology
Punishment
Qualitative Research
Quebec
Social Values - ethnology
Abstract
This research documents the cultural norms around physical discipline and physical abuse among immigrant parents and youth, and assesses the impact that perceived divergences in these norms have on the relation between the family and the outer social world. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents and 10 adolescents from North African Arab countries, and 10 parents and 10 adolescents from Latin America living in Canada. Results highlight that divergent discipline practices were perceived by participants as an important source of tension when they were accompanied with a demeaning image, projected by the host society onto the immigrant family.
PubMed ID
20695289 View in PubMed
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Perceived discrimination and its association with psychological distress among newly arrived immigrants before and after September 11, 2001.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141422
Source
Am J Public Health. 2011 May;101(5):909-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Cécile Rousseau
Ghayda Hassan
Nicolas Moreau
Brett D Thombs
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. cecile.rousseau@mcgill.ca
Source
Am J Public Health. 2011 May;101(5):909-15
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arabs - psychology
Checklist
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Haiti - ethnology
Humans
Islam - psychology
Male
Prejudice
Quebec - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
September 11 Terrorist Attacks - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology
Time Factors
Abstract
We compared the evolution of perception of discrimination from 1998 to 2007 among recent Arab (Muslim and non-Muslim) and Haitian immigrants to Montreal; we also studied the association between perception of discrimination and psychological distress in 1998 and 2007.
We conducted this cross-sectional comparative research with 2 samples: one recruited in 1998 (n = 784) and the other in 2007 (n = 432). The samples were randomly extracted from the registry of the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities of Quebec. Psychological distress was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25.
The perception of discrimination increased from 1998 to 2007 among the Arab Muslim, Arab non-Muslim, and Haitian groups. Muslim Arabs experienced a significant increase in psychological distress associated with discrimination from 1998 to 2007.
These results confirm an increase in perception of discrimination and psychological distress among Arab Muslim recent immigrant communities after September 11, 2001, and highlight the importance this context may have for other immigrant groups.
Notes
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Cites: J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009 Sep;197(9):695-919752650
PubMed ID
20724695 View in PubMed
Less detail

Perception that "everything requires a lot of effort": transcultural SCL-25 item validation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148554
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009 Sep;197(9):695-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Nicolas Moreau
Ghayda Hassan
Cécile Rousseau
Khalid Chenguiti
Author Affiliation
School of Social Work, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Nicolas.Moreau.dlm@uOttawa.ca
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009 Sep;197(9):695-9
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Arabs - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Cluster analysis
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Depression - diagnosis
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Ethnic groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Haiti - ethnology
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Stress, Psychological - diagnosis - psychology
Abstract
This brief report illustrates how the migration context can affect specific item validity of mental health measures. The SCL-25 was administered to 432 recently settled immigrants (220 Haitian and 212 Arabs). We performed descriptive analyses, as well as Infit and Outfit statistics analyses using WINSTEPS Rasch Measurement Software based on Item Response Theory. The participants' comments about the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort in the SCL-25 were also qualitatively analyzed. Results revealed that the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort is an outlier and does not adjust in an expected and valid fashion with its cluster items, as it is over-endorsed by Haitian and Arab healthy participants. Our study thus shows that, in transcultural mental health research, the cultural and migratory contexts may interact and significantly influence the meaning of some symptom items and consequently, the validity of symptom scales.
PubMed ID
19752650 View in PubMed
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6 records – page 1 of 1.