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Contamination by ten harmful elements in toys and children's jewelry bought on the North American market.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114359
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Jun 4;47(11):5921-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-4-2013
Author
Mert Guney
Gerald J Zagury
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3A7, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Jun 4;47(11):5921-30
Date
Jun-4-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Availability
Canada
Child
European Union
Gastric Juice
Humans
Jewelry - analysis
Metals - analysis - pharmacokinetics
North America
Paint - analysis
Plastics
Play and Playthings
United States
Abstract
Toys and children's jewelry may contain metals to which children can be orally exposed. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine total concentrations (TC's) of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se in toys and jewelry (n = 72) bought on the North American market and compare TC's to regulatory limits, and (2) to estimate oral metal bioavailability in selected items (n = 4) via bioaccessibility testing. For metallic toys and children's jewelry (n = 24) 20 items had TC's exceeding migratable concentration limits (European Union). Seven of seventeen jewelry items did not comply with TC limits in U.S. and Canadian regulations. Samples included articles with very high Cd (37% [w/w]), Pb (65%), and Cu (71%) concentrations. For plastic toys (n = 18), toys with paint or coating (n = 12), and brittle or pliable toys (n = 18), TC's were below the EU migration limits (except in one toy for each category). Bioaccessibility tests showed that a tested jewelry item strongly leached Pb (gastric: 698 µg, intestinal: 705 µg) and some Cd (1.38 and 1.42 µg). Especially in metallic toys and jewelry, contamination by Pb and Cd, and to a lesser extent by Cu, Ni, As, and Sb, still poses an acute problem in North America.
PubMed ID
23621131 View in PubMed
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Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry: critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125883
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Apr 17;46(8):4265-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-17-2012
Author
Mert Guney
Gerald J Zagury
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3A7 Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Apr 17;46(8):4265-74
Date
Apr-17-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Availability
Canada
Consumer Product Safety - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Jewelry - analysis
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Play and Playthings
Social Control, Formal
United States
Abstract
High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.
PubMed ID
22443256 View in PubMed
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