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Assessment of human hair as an indicator of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. Case study on a Norwegian mother-child cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271520
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Oct;83:50-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Agnieszka Kucharska
Enrique Cequier
Cathrine Thomsen
Georg Becher
Adrian Covaci
Stefan Voorspoels
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Oct;83:50-7
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - metabolism
Child
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Male
Maternal Exposure
Middle Aged
Norway
Organophosphates - metabolism
Abstract
A major challenge of non-invasive human biomonitoring using hair is to assess whether it can be used as an indicator of exposure to Flame Retardants, such as Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs), since the contribution of atmospheric deposition (air and/or dust) cannot be neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using human hair more thoroughly by comparison of (i) levels of PFRs in human hair (from 48 mothers and 54 children), with levels measured in dust and air in their respective households; and (ii) levels of selected PFRs in hair with the levels of corresponding PFR metabolites in matching urine samples collected simultaneously. Most PFRs (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethyl-hexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) were detected in all human hair samples, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in 93%, tri-cresyl-phosphate (TCP) in 69% and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in 21% of the samples. Levels of individual PFRs ranged between
PubMed ID
26081984 View in PubMed
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Association between perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid stimulating hormone among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107424
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12(1):76
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Yan Wang
Anne P Starling
Line S Haug
Merete Eggesbo
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Gregory Travlos
Debra King
Jane A Hoppin
Walter J Rogan
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Durham, NC, USA. wangy13@niehs.nih.gov.
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12(1):76
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alkanes - blood
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Immunoassay
Linear Models
Norway
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Thyrotropin - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of highly persistent chemicals that are widespread contaminants in wildlife and humans. Exposure to PFAS affects thyroid homeostasis in experimental animals and possibly in humans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of PFASs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) among pregnant women.
A total of 903 pregnant women who enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study from 2003 to 2004 were studied. Concentrations of thirteen PFASs and TSH were measured in plasma samples collected around the 18th week of gestation. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between PFASs and TSH.
Among the thirteen PFASs, seven were detected in more than 60% of samples and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) had the highest concentrations (median, 12.8 ng/mL; inter-quartile range [IQR], 10.1 -16.5 ng/mL). The median TSH concentration was 3.5 (IQR, 2.4 - 4.8) µIU/mL. Pregnant women with higher PFOS had higher TSH levels. After adjustment, with each 1 ng/mL increase in PFOS concentration, there was a 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.1%, 1.6%) rise in TSH. The odds ratio of having an abnormally high TSH, however, was not increased, and other PFASs were unrelated to TSH.
Our results suggest an association between PFOS and TSH in pregnant women that is small and may be of no clinical significance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24010716 View in PubMed
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Associations between brominated flame retardants in human milk and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in neonates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134309
Source
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):737-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Merete Eggesbø
Cathrine Thomsen
Jens V Jørgensen
Georg Becher
Jon Øyvind Odland
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. merete.eggesbo@fhi.no
Source
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):737-43
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure
Milk, human - chemistry
Norway - epidemiology
Thyrotropin - blood - drug effects
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been in widespread use in a vast array of consumer products since the 1970s. The metabolites of some BFRs show a structural similarity to thyroid hormones and experimental animal studies have confirmed that they may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. A major concern has been whether intrauterine exposure to BFRs may disturb thyroid homeostasis since the fetal brain is particularly susceptible to alterations in thyroid hormones. However, few reports on newborns have been published to date.
To evaluate the association between BFRs and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
We studied six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in milk samples from 239 women who were part of the "Norwegian Human Milk Study" (HUMIS), 2003-2006. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were measured in a subset of the women (193 and 46 milk samples, respectively). The milk was sampled at a median of 33 days after delivery. TSH was measured in babies three days after delivery as part of the routine national screening program for early detection of congenital hypothyroidism. Additional information was obtained through the Medical Birth Registry and questionnaires to the mothers.
The PBDE concentrations in human milk in Norway were comparable to concentrations reported from other European countries and Asia, but not the US and Canada where levels are approximately one order of higher magnitude. We observed no statistically significant associations between BDE-47, 99, 153, 154, 209 and HBCD in human milk and TSH in models adjusted for possible confounders and other environmental toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
We did not observe an association between TSH and exposure to HBCD and PBDEs within the exposure levels observed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21601188 View in PubMed
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Associations of in utero exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids with human semen quality and reproductive hormones in adult men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116786
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Apr;121(4):453-8, 458e1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Anne Vested
Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
Sjurdur Frodi Olsen
Jens Peter Bonde
Susanne Lund Kristensen
Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson
Georg Becher
Line Småstuen Haug
Emil Hagen Ernst
Gunnar Toft
Author Affiliation
Danish Ramazzini Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. anneveed@rm.dk
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Apr;121(4):453-8, 458e1-5
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Caprylates - blood
Chromatography, Liquid
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Endocrine Disruptors - blood
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - blood
Humans
Linear Models
Luminescent Measurements
Male
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Semen - drug effects - physiology
Semen Analysis
Sperm Count
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Testis - anatomy & histology - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern.
We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels.
We recruited 169 male offspring (19-21 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1988-1989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30.
Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment.
The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23360585 View in PubMed
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Brominated flame retardants in archived serum samples from Norway: a study on temporal trends and the role of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31584
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2002
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Elsa Lundanes
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@folkehelsa.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Date
Apr-1-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body Burden
Bromine Compounds - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Norway
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The temporal trends and influence of age and gender on levels of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in human serum have been assessed by analyzing archived samples from Norway. Serum from 40 to 50 year old men collected at six time periods during 1977 to 1999 and from eight groups of differing age and gender sampled in 1998 were pooled into six and eight samples, respectively. The BFRs were isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the serum lipids decomposed bytreatmentwith concentrated sulfuric acid directly on the polystyrene-divinylbenzene SPE column, prior to elution of the BFRs. Following diazomethane derivatization, the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture mass spectrometry. Eight BFRs were quantified in the serum samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A). The serum concentrations of all the BFRs, increased during the entire period with the exception of TriBP, and the sum of the six polybrominated diphenyl ethers increased from 0.44 ng/g lipids in 1977 to 3.3 ng/g lipids in 1999. The BFR concentrations in the serum from the different age groups were relatively similar, except for the age group 0-4 years, which had 1.6-3.5 times higher serum concentrations. Women older than 25 years had lower serum concentrations of BFRs compared to the corresponding group of men. No trend related to age or gender, nor time during the period 1977 to 1999 was observed for TriBP. The present study indicates an ongoing increase in human exposure to BFRs, and the current body burden appears to be independent of age, except for infants (0-4 years old), who seem to experience elevated exposure.
Notes
Comment In: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 May 1;36(9):188A-192A12026967
PubMed ID
11999045 View in PubMed
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Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139175
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Dec 15;44(24):9550-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2010
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Line S Haug
Hein Stigum
May Frøshaug
Sharon L Broadwell
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@fhi.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Dec 15;44(24):9550-6
Date
Dec-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - metabolism
Breast Feeding
Caprylates - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism
Female
Fluorocarbons - metabolism
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated - metabolism
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Milk, Human - metabolism
Mothers
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Abstract
At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p
Notes
Erratum In: Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Apr 1;45(7):3192
PubMed ID
21090747 View in PubMed
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Characterisation of human exposure pathways to perfluorinated compounds--comparing exposure estimates with biomarkers of exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136887
Source
Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Line S Haug
Sandra Huber
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. line.smastuen.haug@fhi.no
Source
Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-93
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis - blood - metabolism
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Air Pollution, Indoor - statistics & numerical data
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis - blood - metabolism
Caprylates - analysis - blood - metabolism
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis - blood - metabolism
Humans
Infant
Milk, Human - metabolism
Norway
Abstract
Commercially used per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely detected in humans, but the sources of human exposure are not fully characterized. The objectives of this study were to assess the relative importance of different exposure pathways of PFCs in a group of Norwegians and compare estimated intakes with internal doses obtained through biomonitoring. Individual PFC intakes from multiple exposure sources for a study group of 41 Norwegian women were estimated using measured PFC concentrations in indoor air and house dust as well as information from food frequency questionnaires and PFC concentrations in Norwegian food. Food was generally the major exposure source, representing 67-84% of the median total intake for PFOA and 88-99% for PFOS using different dust ingestion rates and biotransformation factors of 'precursor' compounds. However, on an individual basis, the indoor environment accounted for up to around 50% of the total intake for several women. Significant positive associations between concentrations of PFCs in house dust and the corresponding serum concentrations underline the importance of indoor environment as an exposure pathway for PFCs. For breast-fed infants, breast milk was calculated to be the single most important source to PFCs by far. The estimated intakes were confirmed by comparing serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS calculated using PK models, with the corresponding concentrations measured in serum. Even though food in general is the major source of exposure for PFCs, the indoor environment may be an important contributor to human exposure. This study provides valuable knowledge for risk assessment of PFCs and control strategies.
PubMed ID
21334069 View in PubMed
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Concentrations of selected chemicals in indoor air from Norwegian homes and schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300015
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15; 674:1-8
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-15-2019
Author
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Enrique Cequier
Rune Becher
Anette Kocbach Bølling
Anders R Borgen
Martin Schlabach
Norbert Schmidbauer
Georg Becher
Per Schwarze
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 222, Skøyen, N-0213 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: amrit.sakhi@fhi.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15; 674:1-8
Date
Jul-15-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Norway
Paraffin - analysis
Phthalic Acids
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Both building materials and consumer products have been identified as possible sources for potentially hazardous substances like phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor air. Thus, indoor air has been suggested to contribute significantly to human exposure to these chemicals. There is lack of data on the occurrence of several of the aforementioned chemicals in indoor air. Therefore, indoor air (gas and particulate phase) was collected from 48 households and 6 classrooms in two counties in Norway. In both the households and schools, median levels of low molecular weight phthalates (785?ng/m3), OPFRs (55?ng/m3) and SCCPs (128?ng/m3) were up to 1000 times higher than the levels of PCBs (829?pg/m3) and PBDEs (167?pg/m3). Median concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) and SCCPs were 3-6 times higher in households compared to schools. The levels of OPFRs, PCBs and PBDEs were similar in households and schools. In univariate analysis, the indoor concentrations of different environmental chemicals were significantly affected by location of households (OPFRs), airing of living room (some PCBs and PBDEs), presence of upholstered chair/couch (OPFRs), pet animal hold (some PBDEs) and presence of electrical heaters (selected PCBs and PBDEs). Significant correlations were also detected for the total size of households with OPFRs, frequency of vacuuming the living room with selected PCBs and PBDEs, frequency of washing the living room with selected PCBs and the total number of TVs in the households with selected phthalates and SCCPs. Finally, intake estimates indicated that indoor air contributed more or equally to low molecular weight phthalates and SCCPs exposure compared to food consumption, whereas the contribution from indoor air was smaller than the dietary intake for the other groups of chemicals.
PubMed ID
31003082 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to brominated flame retardants correlates with male blood levels in a selected group of Norwegians with a wide range of seafood consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159000
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Feb;52(2):217-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Helle K Knutsen
Helen E Kvalem
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Margaretha Haugen
Georg Becher
Jan Alexander
Helle M Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. helle.knutsen@fhi.no
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Feb;52(2):217-27
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Female
Flame Retardants - administration & dosage - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - administration & dosage - analysis - blood
Male
Norway
Polybrominated Biphenyls - administration & dosage - analysis - blood
Seafood - analysis
Abstract
This study investigates dietary exposure and serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a group of Norwegians (n = 184) with a wide range of seafood consumption (4-455 g/day). Mean dietary exposure to Sum 5 PBDEs (1.5 ng/kg body weight/day) is among the highest reported. Since concentrations in foods were similar to those found elsewhere in Europe, this may be explained by high seafood consumption among Norwegians. Oily fish was the main dietary contributor both to Sum PBDEs and to the considerably lower HBCD intake (0.3 ng/kg body weight/day). Milk products appeared to contribute most to the BDE-209 intake (1.4 ng/kg body weight/day). BDE-209 and HBCD exposures are based on few food samples and need to be confirmed. Serum levels (mean Sum 7 PBDEs = 5.2 ng/g lipid) and congener patterns (BDE-47 > BDE-153 > BDE-99) were comparable with other European reports. Correlations between individual congeners were higher for the calculated dietary exposure than for serum levels. Further, significant but weak correlations were found between dietary exposure and serum levels for Sum PBDEs, BDE-47, and BDE-28 in males. This indicates that other sources in addition to diet need to be addressed.
PubMed ID
18246586 View in PubMed
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Human exposure pathways to organophosphate triesters - a biomonitoring study of mother-child pairs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265928
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Feb;75:159-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Enrique Cequier
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Rosa Maria Marcé
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Feb;75:159-65
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis - urine
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Child
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Esters
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Food Contamination
Housing
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mothers
Norway
Organophosphates - urine
Plasticizers - analysis
Abstract
The worldwide ban of several formulations of brominated flame retardants has caused an increase in the production of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) to meet the existing fire regulations for a wide range of household products. This biomonitoring study surveys the occurrence of the metabolites from PFRs and related plasticizers (dialkyl and diaryl phosphates; DAPs) in urine from a Norwegian mother-child cohort (48 mothers and 54 children). Concentrations of DAPs were higher in the children than in their mothers (Wilcoxon signed-rank test p=0.001). Median urinary concentrations of diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were 1.1 and 0.51ng/mL in children and mothers, respectively, followed by bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) with medians of 0.23 and 0.12ng/mL, respectively. Detection frequencies for bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) in urine from children and mothers were 32 and 1%, respectively (median
PubMed ID
25461425 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 3.