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210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119426
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2013 Feb;116:34-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Justin P Gwynn
Anna Nalbandyan
Geir Rudolfsen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway. justin.gwynn@nrpa.no
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2013 Feb;116:34-41
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales - chemistry
Angiosperms
Basidiomycota
Eating
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Norway
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radioisotopes - analysis
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Abstract
This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.
PubMed ID
23103573 View in PubMed
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Effects of chronic dietary petroleum exposure on reproductive development in polar cod (Boreogadus saida).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276916
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2016 Oct 4;180:196-208
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-4-2016
Author
Morgan Lizabeth Bender
Marianne Frantzen
Ireen Vieweg
Inger-Britt Falk-Petersen
Helge Kreutzer Johnsen
Geir Rudolfsen
Knut Erik Tollefsen
Paul Dubourg
Jasmine Nahrgang
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2016 Oct 4;180:196-208
Date
Oct-4-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Increasing human activities in the Arctic raise the risk of petroleum pollution, thus posing an elevated risk for Arctic organisms to be chronically exposed to petroleum compounds. The endocrine disrupting properties of some of these compounds (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) present in crude oil may have negative effects on the long and energy intensive reproductive development of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an Arctic keystone species. In the present study, selected reproductive parameters were examined in feral polar cod exposed to crude oil via a natural diet (0.11, 0.57 and 1.14µg crude oil/g fish/day [corresponding to low, medium and high treatments, respectively]) for 31 weeks prior to spawning. Fish maturing in the current reproductive period made up 92% of the experimental population while 5% were immature and 3% were identified as resting fish. Phase I metabolism of PAHs, indicated by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, showed a dose-dependent increase in high and medium crude oil treatments at week 6 and 22, respectively. Decreasing EROD activity and increasing PAH bile metabolite concentrations over the experimental period may be explained by reproductive maturity stage. Significant alterations in sperm motility were observed in crude oil exposed males compared to the controls. The investigated somatic indices (gonad and hepatic), germ cell development and plasma steroid levels (estradiol-17ß [females], testosterone [males and females] and 11-ketotestosterone [males]) were not significantly altered by chronic dietary exposure to crude oil. The environmentally realistic doses polar cod were chronically exposed to in this study were likely not high enough to induce adverse effects in this ecologically important fish species. This study elucidated many baseline aspects of polar cod reproductive physiology and emphasized the influence of maturation state on biomarkers of PAH biotransformation (EROD and PAH bile metabolites).
PubMed ID
27723571 View in PubMed
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No support for cryptic choice by ovarian fluid in an external fertilizer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297359
Source
Ecol Evol. 2018 Dec; 8(23):11763-11774
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2018
Author
Snøfrid April Kleppe
Jarle T Nordeide
Geir Rudolfsen
Lars Figenschou
Berner Larsen
Katrin Reiss
Ivar Folstad
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture Nord University Bodø Norway.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2018 Dec; 8(23):11763-11774
Date
Dec-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Whether the ovarian fluid (OF) represents a selective environment influencing cryptic female choice was tested using an external fertilizer experiencing intense sperm competition and large effects of OF on sperm swimming behavior-the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We physically separated the OF from the eggs of reproductively active females and reintroduced either their own OF or fluid from another female to the eggs. The eggs were then fertilized in vitro in a replicated split-brood design with sperm from two males under synchronized sperm competition trials, while also measuring sperm velocity of the individual males in the individual OFs. We found large effects of males, but no effect of females (i.e., eggs) on paternity, determined from microsatellites. More important, we found no effect of OF treatments on the relative paternity of the two competing males in each pair. This experimental setup does not provide support for the hypothesis that OF plays an important role as medium for cryptic female choice in charr. Power analyses revealed that our sample size is large enough to detect medium-sized changes in relative paternity (medium-sized effect sizes), but not large enough to detect small changes in relative paternity. More studies are needed before a conclusion can be drawn about OF's potential influence on paternity under sperm competition-even in charr.
PubMed ID
30598774 View in PubMed
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