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Ageing and mental health: changes in self-reported health due to physical illness and mental health status with consecutive cross-sectional analyses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279278
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 Jan 18;7(1):e013629
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-18-2017
Author
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Henrik Schirmer
Catharina E A Wang
Nina Emaus
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 Jan 18;7(1):e013629
Date
Jan-18-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
It is known that self-reported health (SRH) declines with increasing age and that comorbidity increases with age. We wished to examine how age transfers its effect to SRH through comorbid disease and mental illness and whether these processes remained stable from 1994 until 2008. The hypothesis is that ageing and/or the increased age-related burden of pathology explains the declining SRH.
The Tromsø Study (TS) is a cohort study using a survey approach with repeated physical examinations. It was conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, from 1974 to 2008.
A total of 21 199 women and 19 229 men participated.
SRH is the outcome of interest. We calculated and compared the effect sizes of age, comorbidity and mental health symptoms using multimediator analysis based on OLS regression.
Ageing had a negative impact on SRH, but the total effect of age decreased from 1994 to 2007. We assessed the direct effect of age and then the proportion of indirect age-related effects through physical illness and mental health symptoms on the total effect. The direct effect of age represented 79.3% of the total effect in 1994 and decreased to 58.8% in 2007. Physical illness emerged as an increasingly important factor and increased its influence from 15.7% to 41.2% of the total effect. Age alone had a protective effect on mental health symptoms and this increased (2.5% to 17.3%), but we found a stronger association between mental health symptoms and physical disease in the later waves of the study (increasing from 3.7% to 14.8%).
The results suggest that the effect on SRH of mental health symptoms caused by physical illness is an increasing public health problem. Treatment and care for specific medical conditions must therefore focus more strongly on how these conditions affect the patient's mental health and address these concerns accordingly.
PubMed ID
28100564 View in PubMed
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Community treatment orders - what are the views of decision makers?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294467
Source
J Ment Health. 2018 Apr; 27(2):97-102
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Henriette Riley
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Georg Høyer
Author Affiliation
a Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse , University Hospital of North Norway , Tromsø , Norway.
Source
J Ment Health. 2018 Apr; 27(2):97-102
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Coercion
Commitment of Mentally Ill
Community Mental Health Services
Humans
Mental Disorders - therapy
Norway
Outpatients
Patient compliance
Abstract
Community treatment orders (CTOs) are being increasingly used in Western countries. The scheme implies that mental health patients can live outside a hospital, but still be subject to coercive care to ensure compliance with their treatment. There is limited knowledge of how the scheme is practised.
To gain knowledge of how decision makers weigh and evaluate various considerations when making decisions on CTOs.
Qualitative in-depth interviews with decision makers responsible for CTOs in Norway.
Decision makers viewed CTOs as a useful scheme to ensure control, continuity and follow-up care in the treatment of outpatients with a history of poor treatment motivation. They had varied interest in and knowledge of the patient's life situation and how the scheme affects the patient's everyday life. Little attention was devoted to patient experiences of formal and informal coercion.
When deciding on CTOs, decision makers should pay more attention to the negative consequences that patients may experience. In many cases, decision makers are probably not aware of these coercive factors.
PubMed ID
27461530 View in PubMed
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Health Impact Index. Development and Validation of a Method for Classifying Comorbid Disease Measured against Self-Reported Health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269972
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148830
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Henrik Schirmer
Nina Emaus
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148830
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a method of classifying comorbid conditions that accounts for both the severity and joint effects of the diseases. The Tromsø Study is a cohort study with a longitudinal design utilizing a survey approach with physical examinations in the Tromsø municipality from 1974 to 2008, where in total 40051 subjects participated. We used Tromsø 4 as reference population and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI) panel as validation population. Ordinal regression was used to assess the effect of comorbid disease on Self-Reported Health (SRH). The model is controlled for interaction between diseases, mental health, age, and gender. The health impact index estimated levels of SRH. The comparison of predicted and observed SRH showed no significant differences. Spearman's correlation showed that increasing levels of comorbidity were related to lower levels of SRH (RS = -0.36, p
PubMed ID
26849044 View in PubMed
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"I Do Not Really Belong Out There Anymore": Sense of Being and Belonging Among People With Medically Unexplained Long-Term Fatigue.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291384
Source
Qual Health Res. 2017 Mar; 27(4):474-486
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Olaug S Lian
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Qual Health Res. 2017 Mar; 27(4):474-486
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Chronic Disease
Fatigue - psychology
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Quality of Life
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
In this article, we explore relations between health, being, belonging and place through an interpretive thematic analysis of autobiographic text and photographs about the everyday lives of 10 women and men living with medically unexplained long-term fatigue in Norway. While interpreting their place-related illness experiences, we ask: How do they experience their being in the world, where do they experience a sense of belonging/not belonging, and why do places become places of belonging/not belonging? The participants describe experiences of (a) being socially detached and alienated, (b) being imprisoned, (c) being spectators who observe the world, and (d) senses of belonging. They describe senses of being and belonging/not belonging as closely attached to physical and symbolic aspects of places in which they reside, and they wistfully reflect on the question of "why." The study illustrates the influence of experienced place-material as well as immaterial-on health and illness.
PubMed ID
26893305 View in PubMed
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A prospective study on the effect of self-reported health and leisure time physical activity on mortality among an ageing population: results from the Tromsø study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306088
Source
BMC Public Health. 2020 Apr 28; 20(1):575
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-28-2020
Author
Ida Marie Opdal
Lill Sverresdatter Larsen
Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock
Henrik Schirmer
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. ida.m.opdal@uit.no.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2020 Apr 28; 20(1):575
Date
Apr-28-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Cause of Death
Diagnostic Self Evaluation
Exercise - psychology
Female
Humans
Independent Living - psychology
Leisure Activities - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Sedentary Behavior
Self Report
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
The prevailing Western ideal of ageing in place, with the option to stay at home as one ages, has led to the development of physical activity guidelines for people of advanced age to increase their quality of life and promote their functional abilities. This study investigates the effect of self-reported health and physical activity on mortality and examines how levels of age-specific physical activity affect self-reported health trajectories in an ageing cohort.
The sample cohort of the population-based Tromsø Study consists of 24,309 participants aged 25-97?years at baseline. This study involved a survival analysis from 1994 to 2015 and included those who completed two or more surveys (n?=?12,241) between 1994 and 2008. The purpose was to examine the relationship between physical activity and self-reported health throughout life using a random coefficient model analysis.
Being sedentary was associated with an increased risk of mortality in the ageing cohort. Subjects who reported neither light physical activity nor hard physical activity had a 57% (OR 1.57, 1.07-2.31) increased risk of all-cause death. Both hard (OR 2.77, 2.35-3.26) and light (OR 1.52, 1.32-1.76) physical activity were positively associated with self-reported health. The effect was age dependent. Vigorous physical activity was most beneficial for individuals younger than 40?years old, while moderate physical activity levels prolonged the period in which good self-reported health was likely.
Poor self-reported health and being sedentary were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in the participants. Furthermore, physical activity prolonged the period of good self-reported health among older adults in two ways: physical activity habits from early adulthood and onwards were beneficial to self-reported health at an advanced age, and self-reported health was dependent on engagement in moderate intensity physical activity after approximately 65?years of age.
PubMed ID
32345261 View in PubMed
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Visual methods in health dialogues: A qualitative study of public health nurse practice in schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293515
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2017 Dec; 73(12):3070-3078
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Hilde Laholt
Marilys Guillemin
Kim Mcleod
Randi Elisabeth Olsen
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Care Sciences, The health faculty UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2017 Dec; 73(12):3070-3078
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Norway
Nurses, Public Health
School Nursing
Abstract
We aimed to explore how using visual methods might improve or complicate the dynamics of the health dialogue between public health nurses (PHNs) and school pupils. This was done from the perspective of PHNs, specifically examining how they understood their role and practice as a PHN and the application of visual methods in this practice.
The health dialogue is a method used by PHNs in school nursing in Norway. In this practice, there can be communicative barriers between pupils and PHNs. Investigating how PHNs understand their professional practice can lead to ways of addressing these communicative barriers, which can affect pupil satisfaction and achievement of health-related behaviours in the school context. Specifically, the use of visual methods by PHNs may address these communicative barriers.
The research design was qualitative, using focus groups combined with visual methods.
We conducted focus group interviews using a semi-structured discussion guide and visual methods with five groups of PHNs (n = 31) working in northern Norwegian school health services. The data were collected during January and February 2016. Discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and coded into themes and sub-themes using systematic text condensation and drawings were analysed using interpretive engagement, a method of visual analysis.
Drawings and focus group discussions showed that PHNs perceived their professional practice as primarily a relational praxis. The PHNs used a variety of visual methods as part of the health dialogue with school pupils. This active use of visualization worked to build and strengthen relations when words were inadequate and served to enhance the flexible and relational practice employed by the PHNs.
PHNs used different kinds of visualization methods to establish relations with school pupils, especially when verbalization by the pupils was difficult. PHNs were aware of both the benefits and challenges of using visualization with school pupils in health education. We recommend the use of visual methods in schools because they are useful for PHNs, other health professionals and teachers working with children and young people in developing relations, particularly where verbal communication may be a challenge.
PubMed ID
28661011 View in PubMed
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What is the impact of underweight on self-reported health trajectories and mortality rates: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285906
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 02;15(1):191
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-02-2017
Author
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Henrik Schirmer
Nina Emaus
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 02;15(1):191
Date
Oct-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Utilizing a cohort study design combining a survey approach with repeated physical examinations, we examined the independent effects of BMI on mortality and self-reported health (SRH) and whether these independent effects change as people grow older.
The Tromsø Study consists of six surveys conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, with large representative samples of a general population. In total, 31,985 subjects participated in at least one of the four surveys administered between 1986 and 2008. Outcomes of interest were SRH and all-cause mortality.
Overweight and underweight subjects reported significantly lower levels of SRH, but age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. The SRH trajectory of underweight subjects at age 25 was slightly above the other categories (0.08), but it fell to -.30 below the reference category at age 90. For obese subjects, the difference was -0.15 below the reference category at age 25 and -0.18 below at age 90. This implies that even though a low BMI was slightly beneficial at a young age, it represented an increasing risk with age that crossed the reference curve at age 38 and even crossed the obese trajectory at age 67 in the full fitted model. The proportional hazard ratio for those who were underweight was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.38-2.06) for all-cause death as compared to 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.23) for obese subjects.
BMI affected SRH and all-cause mortality independently from comorbidity, mental health, health-related behaviors and other biological risk factors. Being underweight was associated with excess mortality as compared to all others, and age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. Weight increase was beneficial for mortality but not for SRH among the underweight. The rapid decline of SRH with increasing age suggests that particular attention should be paid to underweight after 38 years of age.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28969649 View in PubMed
Less detail

What is the impact of underweight on self-reported health trajectories and mortality rates: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289449
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 02; 15(1):191
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-02-2017
Author
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Henrik Schirmer
Nina Emaus
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. geir.lorem@uit.no.
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 02; 15(1):191
Date
Oct-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Proportional Hazards Models
Self Report
Surveys and Questionnaires
Thinness - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Utilizing a cohort study design combining a survey approach with repeated physical examinations, we examined the independent effects of BMI on mortality and self-reported health (SRH) and whether these independent effects change as people grow older.
The Tromsø Study consists of six surveys conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, with large representative samples of a general population. In total, 31,985 subjects participated in at least one of the four surveys administered between 1986 and 2008. Outcomes of interest were SRH and all-cause mortality.
Overweight and underweight subjects reported significantly lower levels of SRH, but age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. The SRH trajectory of underweight subjects at age 25 was slightly above the other categories (0.08), but it fell to -.30 below the reference category at age 90. For obese subjects, the difference was -0.15 below the reference category at age 25 and -0.18 below at age 90. This implies that even though a low BMI was slightly beneficial at a young age, it represented an increasing risk with age that crossed the reference curve at age 38 and even crossed the obese trajectory at age 67 in the full fitted model. The proportional hazard ratio for those who were underweight was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.38-2.06) for all-cause death as compared to 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.23) for obese subjects.
BMI affected SRH and all-cause mortality independently from comorbidity, mental health, health-related behaviors and other biological risk factors. Being underweight was associated with excess mortality as compared to all others, and age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. Weight increase was beneficial for mortality but not for SRH among the underweight. The rapid decline of SRH with increasing age suggests that particular attention should be paid to underweight after 38 years of age.
Notes
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Aug 1;180(3):254-62 PMID 24966215
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Apr 17;10 (4):e0115446 PMID 25884834
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2000 Oct 9;160(18):2847-53 PMID 11025795
Cites: Stat Methods Med Res. 2013 Jun;22(3):278-95 PMID 21220355
Cites: Int J Stroke. 2015 Jan;10(1):99-104 PMID 25635277
Cites: Obes Rev. 2014 Mar;15(3):169-82 PMID 24118750
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jul;66(7):611-7 PMID 21321065
Cites: Tech Coloproctol. 2016 Aug;20(8):517-35 PMID 27343117
Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Feb 05;11(2):e0148830 PMID 26849044
Cites: Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Aug;35(8):1914-26 PMID 24830882
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Dec 15;162(12):1179-88 PMID 16269586
Cites: Gend Med. 2009 Dec;6(4):575-86 PMID 20114008
Cites: Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2014 Nov;67(3):451-70 PMID 24188158
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Sep 1;182(5):441-50 PMID 25977515
Cites: Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:607192 PMID 24987694
Cites: Oral Oncol. 2016 Sep;60:55-60 PMID 27531873
Cites: World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1-452 PMID 8594834
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Apr;25(2):259-65 PMID 9119550
Cites: Behav Sci. 1974 Jan;19(1):1-15 PMID 4808738
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Mar;25(3):183-93 PMID 20087630
Cites: Med Care. 2009 Apr;47(4):440-7 PMID 19238099
Cites: Prev Chronic Dis. 2014 Jun 05;11:E93 PMID 24901793
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Sep;65(9):800-6 PMID 20551149
Cites: PLoS Med. 2016 Apr 19;13(4):e1001998 PMID 27093615
Cites: Eat Weight Disord. 2016 Sep;21(3):353-64 PMID 26942768
Cites: Lancet. 2004 Jan 10;363(9403):157-63 PMID 14726171
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2011 May;20(4):575-82 PMID 21076942
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Apr;61(4):512-8 PMID 23452127
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;41(4):961-7 PMID 21422063
Cites: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2015 May 05;135(8):768-70 PMID 25947599
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jun 1;183(11):1008-17 PMID 27188940
Cites: Atherosclerosis. 2016 Oct;253:94-101 PMID 27596134
Cites: Obes Res. 2001 Jan;9(1):21-31 PMID 11346664
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2013 Dec;22(10):2693-705 PMID 23539466
Cites: Nutr Cancer. 2016 Aug-Sep;68(6):918-25 PMID 27351098
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;68(7):724-31 PMID 21727255
Cites: Thorax. 2016 Jan;71(1):84-5 PMID 26253581
Cites: Lancet. 2015 Aug 8;386(9993):533-40 PMID 26049253
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Oct;49(10):1309-18 PMID 11890489
Cites: Age Ageing. 2013 Nov;42(6):727-34 PMID 24014657
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Sep 1;172(5):558-65 PMID 20682520
PubMed ID
28969649 View in PubMed
Less detail

What is the impact of underweight on self-reported health trajectories and mortality rates: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289607
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 02; 15(1):191
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-02-2017
Author
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Henrik Schirmer
Nina Emaus
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. geir.lorem@uit.no.
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 02; 15(1):191
Date
Oct-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Proportional Hazards Models
Self Report
Surveys and Questionnaires
Thinness - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Utilizing a cohort study design combining a survey approach with repeated physical examinations, we examined the independent effects of BMI on mortality and self-reported health (SRH) and whether these independent effects change as people grow older.
The Tromsø Study consists of six surveys conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, with large representative samples of a general population. In total, 31,985 subjects participated in at least one of the four surveys administered between 1986 and 2008. Outcomes of interest were SRH and all-cause mortality.
Overweight and underweight subjects reported significantly lower levels of SRH, but age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. The SRH trajectory of underweight subjects at age 25 was slightly above the other categories (0.08), but it fell to -.30 below the reference category at age 90. For obese subjects, the difference was -0.15 below the reference category at age 25 and -0.18 below at age 90. This implies that even though a low BMI was slightly beneficial at a young age, it represented an increasing risk with age that crossed the reference curve at age 38 and even crossed the obese trajectory at age 67 in the full fitted model. The proportional hazard ratio for those who were underweight was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.38-2.06) for all-cause death as compared to 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.23) for obese subjects.
BMI affected SRH and all-cause mortality independently from comorbidity, mental health, health-related behaviors and other biological risk factors. Being underweight was associated with excess mortality as compared to all others, and age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. Weight increase was beneficial for mortality but not for SRH among the underweight. The rapid decline of SRH with increasing age suggests that particular attention should be paid to underweight after 38 years of age.
Notes
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Aug 1;180(3):254-62 PMID 24966215
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Apr 17;10 (4):e0115446 PMID 25884834
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2000 Oct 9;160(18):2847-53 PMID 11025795
Cites: Stat Methods Med Res. 2013 Jun;22(3):278-95 PMID 21220355
Cites: Int J Stroke. 2015 Jan;10(1):99-104 PMID 25635277
Cites: Obes Rev. 2014 Mar;15(3):169-82 PMID 24118750
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jul;66(7):611-7 PMID 21321065
Cites: Tech Coloproctol. 2016 Aug;20(8):517-35 PMID 27343117
Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Feb 05;11(2):e0148830 PMID 26849044
Cites: Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Aug;35(8):1914-26 PMID 24830882
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Dec 15;162(12):1179-88 PMID 16269586
Cites: Gend Med. 2009 Dec;6(4):575-86 PMID 20114008
Cites: Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2014 Nov;67(3):451-70 PMID 24188158
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Sep 1;182(5):441-50 PMID 25977515
Cites: Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:607192 PMID 24987694
Cites: Oral Oncol. 2016 Sep;60:55-60 PMID 27531873
Cites: World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1-452 PMID 8594834
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Apr;25(2):259-65 PMID 9119550
Cites: Behav Sci. 1974 Jan;19(1):1-15 PMID 4808738
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Mar;25(3):183-93 PMID 20087630
Cites: Med Care. 2009 Apr;47(4):440-7 PMID 19238099
Cites: Prev Chronic Dis. 2014 Jun 05;11:E93 PMID 24901793
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Sep;65(9):800-6 PMID 20551149
Cites: PLoS Med. 2016 Apr 19;13(4):e1001998 PMID 27093615
Cites: Eat Weight Disord. 2016 Sep;21(3):353-64 PMID 26942768
Cites: Lancet. 2004 Jan 10;363(9403):157-63 PMID 14726171
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2011 May;20(4):575-82 PMID 21076942
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Apr;61(4):512-8 PMID 23452127
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;41(4):961-7 PMID 21422063
Cites: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2015 May 05;135(8):768-70 PMID 25947599
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jun 1;183(11):1008-17 PMID 27188940
Cites: Atherosclerosis. 2016 Oct;253:94-101 PMID 27596134
Cites: Obes Res. 2001 Jan;9(1):21-31 PMID 11346664
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